The Prána Váyu

The Váyu, that courses in (governs)the cavity of the mouth. ‡ is called the Prána. its function being to force down the food into the cavity of the stomach, and to assist the different vitalising principles of the body (such as the internal heat or fire etc ) in discharging their functions in life, and to contribute to the general sustenance of the body. A deranged condition of this particular kind of Váyu (Prána) is usually followed by hic-cough,dyspnoea and other kindred distempers. 7.

The Udána Váyu

The most important of the vital Váyus, which course(sends its vibrations) upward, is called the Uáana. It produces speech, snug, etc. In its deranged state it brings on diseases which are specifically confined to regions lying above the clavicles. S.

The Samána Váyu

The Samána Váyu courses in (governs) the stomach (Amáshaya) and in the region of intestines (Pakáashaya). Its functions consist in digesting the chyme brought down into the intestines in unison with the digestive ferment (Agni), and especiailly in disintegrating its essence from its refuse or excreted matter. A deranged or aggravated condition of the Samána Váyu causes dysentery, Gulma, and impaired digestion, etc. 9.

* See Introduction Vol. I. p.p XLYIII - XLIX Mahámahopádhyaya Dvárka Natha Kaviratna interprets this Agni as digestive heat (Jatharágni).

† The Prána Váyu is identical with the energy of the nerve centre in the medulla; the Udána with that of the one which is situated in the speech centre. The Samána is same as the energy of the epigastric plexus, the Udára is same as the energy of the Motor-Sensory Nerves, and the Apána is identical with the force of the Hypogastric plexus.

‡ The field of its action includes the regions of the heart, throat, head and the nose.

The Vyána Váyu

The Váyu known as the Vyána courses (acts) through the whole organism, and its functions consist in sending the lymph chyle etc. all through the body and in helping the out-flow of blood (Asrik) and perspiration. Five kinds of muscular movements * are ascribed to the action of the Vyána Váyu, a deranged condition of which is generally attended with diseases which arc not confined to any particular region, member, or organ of the body, but are found to affect the whole organism (such as fever, etc). 10.

The Apána Váyu

The Vayu known as the Apána acts in the lower region of the intestines (Pakvádhána). Its functions consist in bearing down the foetus and the faeces and in evacuating the urine semen and catamenial blood. An enraged condition of this Váyu tends to bring on serious diseases, which are peculiar to the urinary bladder and the distal portion of the large intestine (Guda). An aggravated condition of both the Vyána and Apana Yáyus may produce Prameha and disorders of the seminal fluid, while a simultaneous excitement of the five vital Váyus leads to a sure and speedy termination of life. 11-12.

Now we shall describe the nature of diseases, brought about by the localization of the variously aggravated Váyus in the different parts of the body. - In the cavity of the stomach (Amáshaya) the deranged or aggravated Váyu gives rise to vomiting, vertigo, epileptic fits, thirst and pain at the sides (Párs'va Sula) and about the region of the heart (Hridgraha). In the intestines (Pakváshaya) the enraged or disturbed Váyu gives rise to a rumbling in the intestines, a piercing pain about the region of the umbilicus, scanty and painful urination and stool, or their entire suppression (Anáha), and pain about the region of the coccyx (Trika) . 13 - 15. Similarly, incarcerated in the sense-organs, such as the cars, etc. it tends to deprive them of their respective faculties. In the skin (lymph chyle) it produces a discolouring of the complexion, parchedness and twitching in the skin, and causes a complete local anaesthesia, giving rise to a tingling, piercing pain in the skin, which spontaneously bursts, or becomes marked with cracks and fissures. Similarly, the aggravated Váyu interfering with the principle of blood gives rise to ulcers. In the flesh, it produces painful nodes and tumours (Granthi), while in the principle of fat it brings on almost painless tumours (Granthi) unattended with any kind of ulcer. Incarcerated in the veins etc. (Sirá) it produces a stiffening or painful contraction, or a varicose or neuralgic condition; in a ligamiment (Snáyu) , it produces numbness (anaesthesia), palsy, aching pain and convulsive jerks; in a long joint, it tends to deprive it of its contractibility and produces a painful inflammatory swelling (about the affected part). In the bones it produces a wasting (atrophy) of the bones which crack and begin to spontaneously burst, attended with the characteristic bone-ache. Again in that important principle of life, the marrow, it tends to dry it up and produces a sort of pain, extending all over the body which knows no respite or abatement. Similarly, in the principle of semen it tends to produce a scanty, defective, or excessive emission of that vital fluid, or a complete stoppage thereof. [6 - 23.

* Such as expansion, flexion, lowering down and lifting up or lateral thru-ting of any part of the body.

The Váyu, thus disturbed and agitated, affects in succession the lower and the upper extremities of the body, and the head, or extends all over the body and deranges all its root-principles (Dhátu). The symptoms, which mark such conditions of the body, are numbness (paralysis), convulsive contortions of the limbs (Akshepa), anaesthesia, and various kinds of pain(Sula),and swelling (Sopha) of the body. The deranged Váyu, having entered the natural scats of the Pittam or Kapham, develops symptoms, which arc peculiar to cither of them, and gives rise to numerous diseases. 24 - 25.

The symptoms, which characterise the union of the deranged Vávu with the Pittam (in its particular seat) are a burning sensation, heat, thirst, and loss of consciousness, in addition to the symptoms of the Vtaja disease so generated in that particular part of the body, while a similar unison with the Kapham develops coldness, swelling and heaviness (of the affected part). The disturbed or agitated Váyu in unison with the principle of blood gives rise to a sort of pricking pain (pins and needles in the affected locality), which can not bear the least touch, or is marked by complete anaesthesia, and symptoms, peculiar to the deranged Pittam. follow in its train. 26 - 28.

Vomiting, and a burning sensation, etc. in the body, mark the instance when the Prana Váyu is surcharged (Avrita) with the Pittam; while weakness, lassitude, somnolence and a general discolouring of the complexion ( D. R., - loss of taste) characterise a case when it is surcharged with the deranged Kapham A burning sensation in the body, loss of consciousness or epileptic fits, and a sense of giddiness (vertigo) and physical languor arc the indications, which distinguish a case of the Uáana Váyu being surcharged with the Pittam; while a stoppage or absence of perspiration, appearance of goose-flesh on the skin, impaired digestion, coldness and numbness of the affected part characterise a case of the same being surcharged with the Kapham. 29 - 32.

Copious flow of perspiration, heat with a burning sensation in the body, and epileptic fits indicate a case when the Samána Váyu has become united with the Pittam; while a copious flow of stool and urine, and an excess of mucous secretion (Kapham) from the nose (fluent coryza) etc. and horripilation mark a case, where it has become saturated with the Kapham. 33 - 34

Heat and a burning sensation in the affected part and a profuse menorrhagia mark a case when the Apána Váyu becomes surcharged with the Pittam, whereas a sense of heaviness in the lower limbs characterises a case when it becomes overcharged with the Kapham. 35 - 36.

[Symptoms such as] burning and jerking in the limbs, and a sense of physical languor become manifest in the event of the Vyána Váyu being surcharged with the Pittam, while a general heaviness of the limbs, stiffness or numbness of the bone-joints, and an incapability of locomotion indicate the fact of its being surcharged with the Kapham. 37 - 38.