Agar'icus musca'rius (Amani't musca'ria), Fly Fungus (Agaric). -- N. Europe, Russia. This mushroom grows in the autumn mainly, under pine trees. Stalk is white, tuberous at base, 7.5 - 1.5 Cm (3 - 6') high, 1.8 Cm. (3/4') thick. Cup (pileus) 10 - 15 Cm. (4 - 6') broad, orange-red. Contains chiefly muscarine (muscarina), C5 H15 O3 N, a colorless, odorless, crystalline, deliquescent alkaloid, yielding deliquescent salts (nitrate, sulphate). All usually occur as brown, syrupy liquids, soluble in water, alcohol. Resembles Calabar bean in action: antihydrotic, antispasmodic, myotic. Reduces force and frequency of pulse: contracts muscles of intestines and bladder: increases abdominal secretions: causes dypsnea, paralysis, death. Given for intestinal torpor, duodenal catarrh, diabetes, antidote to atropine, to replace physostigmine. Dose: (Muscarine), gr. 1/20 - 1/15 (.002 - .004 Gm.).