Anamir'ta Coc'culus, Cocculus (Indicus), Fish (Indian) Berry, N.F.: -- The dried ripe fruit with 2 p.c. foreign organic matter; E. India, Ceylon. Large woody climber; leaves 10 - 20 Cm. (4 - 8') long, cordate: flowers, small, dioecious. Fruit (in clusters 2 - 5) drupe, reniform, 8 - 13.5 Mm. (1/3 - 7 1/12') long, 7 - 11 Mm. (L/4 - 1/2') broad, 7 - 10 Mm (1/4 - 2/5') thick, blackish-brown, wrinkled, hilum and micropyle near ridge on convex side; stalk scar; pericarp tough, 1 Mm. (L/25') thick, 1 urn-shaped seed, taste bitter, seed intensely bitter. Powder: Brown -- epicarp fragments with alkalies -- reddish-brown, fixed oil globules, aleurone grains, acicular crystals soluble in diluted hydrochloric acid, fibers, tracheae; contains (seed) -- picrotoxin, anamirtin (cocculin, not bitter or poisonous), fat; pricarp, nearly tasteless) -- menispermine, paramenispermine, hypopicrotoxic acid, resin. Picrotoxin (picrotoxinum), C HO -- U.S.P. 1880-1890, not a single body, but composed of picrotoxin 54 p.c., and picrotin 46 p.c.; obtained by evaporating to syrup a tincture made3 with hot alcohol, removing fat, boiling residue with water, filtering, which deposits picrotoxin upon cooling. It is in colorless, shining prismatic crystals or powder, odorless, very bitter, soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform; with HSO + NaNO + NaOH gives brick-red, fading in few hours. Cerebrospinal excitant, nervine, antiparasitic, with combined action of belladonna and nox vomica; slows heart and respiration, causes spasms of flexors, death by paralying heart; convulsions resemble epileptic paroxysms (circular spasms) -- those of strychnine being tonic (tetanic), affecting the extensors; paralysis (laryngeal), epilepsy, chorea, eclampsia, chronic spasms of the limbs, vomiting with giddiness, morphine antidote; externally -- parasitic skin diseases, itch, lice, ringworm (avoiding abraded surfaces); powdered berries, mixed with dough, sometimes thrown upon water in order to catch fish; after eating this, fish whirl around, become stupefied, and lie motionless upon the surface so that they may readily be picked up; berries also prevent secondary fermentation of alcoholic liquors, adding strength thereto, but dangerous. Poisoning: Symptoms and treatment similar to strychnine. Dose: seed, gr. 1 - 3 (.06 - .2 Gm.); 1. Tinctura Cocculi, 10 p.c. (Diluted alcohol), dose mij-15 (.13 - 1 cc.) -- externally to destroy parasites; picrotoxin, gr. 1/64 - 1/32 (.001 - .002 Gm.); menispermine, gr. 1 - 2 (.06 - .13 Gm.); decoction, 2.5 p.c.; ointment, 2 p.c.
Anamirta Cocculus (paniculata). Anamirta Cocculus: a, staminate flower; b, longitudinal section of fruit, magnified; c, fruit and section normal size.