Apo'cynum cannab'inum, Apocynum, Canadian Hemp, Dogbane, N.F. -- The dried rhizome and roots with not more than 5 p.c. of stems or other foreign organic matter; United States, Canada to Florida. Perennial milky-juiced herb, 1-2 M. (3-6 degrees) high, glabrous, branched; leaves opposite, entire, mucronate; flowers, cymes, greenish-white; fruit acute follicle, 20 Cm.(8') long, 4 Mm. (1/6') thick. Rhizome, cylindrical, branched, varying length, 3-10 Mm (l/6-2/5') thick, grayish-brown, wrinkled, occasional transverse fissures with vertical sides through bark; fracture short; bark (50-65 p.c. of root) brownish, 1.5-3 Mm (l/18-1/8') thick--containing laticiferous ducts and bitterness; wood radiate with large tracheae; pith small, in rhizome pieces only; almost inodorous; taste starchy, bitter, acrid. Powder, light brown--numerous starch grains, some altered, swollen and with central cleft, lignified wood-fibers, tracheae, few cork cells with reddish-brown walls, few latex cells, few or no stone cells; solvents: 60 p.c. alcohol, boiling water partially; contains cynotoxin, tannin, resin, starch, ash 5 p.c. Diuretic, diaphoretic, expectorant, antiperiodic, alterative, cardiac stimulant (similar to digitalis); emetic; cardiac and renal dropsy, intermittents, dyspepsia. Dose, gr. 2-5 (.13-.3 Gm.); emetic, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.)' 1. Fluidextractum Apocyni (60 p.c. alcohol), dose mij-5--30 (.13-.3--2 cc.). Extract (aqueous), Infusion, 5 p.c., Tincture, 10 p.c. A. Androsaemifo'lium, Spreading Dogbane.--The rhizome (root), U.S.P. 1830-1870; N. America. Grows associated with the preceding, having stem more spreading, leaves broader, rhizome thinner, tougher, with central pith; bark thinner with layer of stone cells; flowers pinkish; contains (supposedly) about the same as A. Cannabinum, causisng it to be used for similar purposes, but, as a fact, it produces quite different effects.
Apocynum cannabinum: root, transverse section, magnified 25 diam.