Arc'tium Lap'pa, Lappa, Burdock Root, Clotbur, N.F. -- The dried first year root with not more than 5 p.c. of leaf-bases nor 2 p.c. of other foreign organic matter; Europe, N. Asia, naturalized in N. America -- rich waste places. Coarse biennial weed .6-2 M. (2-6 degrees) high, branched; leaves cordate-oblong, dentate, rough, petiolate; flowers purple, calyx of imbricated scales with hooked extremities for adhering to objects; achenes (burs) 12-25 Mm (l/2-1') broad, globoidal, 3-angled; seed quadrangular; A. Mi'nus, heads small, involucre at first cottony, finally smooth; leaves unequally rounded at base. Root .25-.8 M. (10-30') long, 5-20 Mm. (1/5-4/5') thick, nearly simple, fusiform, frequently split or broken, grayish-brown, longitudinally wrinkled, crown annulate, sometimes surmounted by woolly tuft of leaf remains; fracture somewhat horny; dark cambium separating thick brownish bark from yellowish, porous radiate wood, centrally hollow or with white pith-like tissue; odor slight pyroligneous on milling; taste mucilaginous, sweetish, slightly bitter. Powder, light brown--parenchyma cells of cortex, medullary ray cells and wood parenchyma of young roots; few wood-fibers, no starch or calcium oxalate; solvents: diluted alcohol, boiling water partially; contains inulin, bitter extractive, resin, fat 9 p.c., mucilage, sugar, wax, tannin (phlobaphene), lappin, ash 6 p.c. Diaphoretic diuretic, alterative aperient, depurative, rheumatism, gout, pulmonary catarrh, psoriasis, acne, syphilis, scrofula, urinary deposits, burns, wounds eruptions, swellings. Dose, 3ss-2 (2-8 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Lappae (diluted alcohol), dose 3ss-1 (2-8 cc.). Tincture, 10 p.c. (Diluted alcohol, whisky), dose, 3ij-3 (8-12 cc.) After meals. Fructus Lappae, Semen Bardanae, U.S.P. 1830; the seed about 6 Mm. (1/4') long, obovate-oblong, slightly curved, angular, flattened, roughish, brown-gray, mottled with black; inodorous taste oily, bitter; contains drying oil 15.4 p.c., resins 5.5 p.c., lappin;tincture 25 p.c. (75 p.c. alcohol), 3ss-2 (2-8 cc.); fluidextract, mxv-30 (1-2 cc. -- tonic); 3ss-1 (2-4 cc. -- alterative). Fructus Silybi (Sil'ybum Maria'num), Mary Thistle; S. Europe; achenes 5 Mm. 1/5') long, not curved, obovate, flttened, smooth, glossy, light brown, with blackish striae, brownish; taste oily, bitter. Bi'dens bipinna'ta, Spanish Needles, Beggar-lice; stem square, achenes triangular, barbed; stimulant, aromatic (vol. oil), antispasmodic, expectorant, diaphoretic; hay fever, amenorrhea (hot infusion), asthma, bronchitis. Rudbeck'ia hir'ta, Yellow Daisy, Black-eyed Susan, Nigger-head; stimulating diuretic ("Eclectic's").