Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi, (Linne') Sprengel. The dried leaf with not more than 5 p.c. stems or other foreign organic matter.

Habitat. Europe, Asia, N. America, United States, south of New Jersey, westward to California, New Mexico; rocky or sandy soil--pine woods.

Syn. Bearberry, Red Bearberry, Upland (Mountain, Wild) Cranberry, Universe Vine, Mountain Box, Bear's Grape (Bilberry, Whortleberry), Barren Myrtle, Kinnikinnick, Fox (Meal) berry; Br. Uvae Ursi Folia; Fr. Busserole, Raisin d'Ours;

Ger. Barentraubenblatter.

Arc-to-staph'y-los. L. fr. Gr. ..., a bear, + ... A bunch of grapes -- i.e., the roughness of the fruit and these berries occurring in clusters llike grapes.

U'va-ur'si. L. ..., a grape, + ursus, ursi, a bear, of a bear--bear-berry--i.e., berries are rough or bearish.

Plant

Low evergreen shrub; stem creeping, young branches rising obliquely upward several inches; flowers May, 3-15 together, pinkish-white, racemes, calyx reddish, corolla urceolate, reddish-white or white with red lips; fruit autumn, 6 Mm. (1/4') broad, fleshy, bright red berry, pericarp thick, 5-seeded, resembles currants in appearance and clusters. LEAVES (LEAF), obovate, oblong-spatulate, 12-30 Mm. (1/2-l l/5') long, 5-13 Mm. (1/5-1/2') broad, entire, slightly revolute, apex obtuse, rounded, base cuneate, tapering into short, stout petiole; dark green, glaucous, shiny, finely reticulate; under surface yellowish-green slightly pubescent, especially on midrib, coriaceous; fracture short; odor aromatic, tea-like; taste astringent, somewhat bitter.

Powder

olive-green--irregular fragments, epidermal cells polygonal, elliptical stomata surrounded by 5-18 neighboring cells, mesophyll with chloroplastids, irregular masses of carbohydrates, fibro-vascular bundles, spiral tracheae, sclerenchymatous fibers, crystal-fibers, cells with yellowish-brown content, bluish-black with ferric chloride T.S. Tests: 1. Cover over .1 Gm. (Powder) on watch-crystal with another watch-crystal, heat gently--crystalline sublimate (hydroquinone) forms in long rods, feather-like agregates, polarizing light with brilliant colors. 2. Macerate 1 Gm. With boiling water 10 cc., shake occasionally until cold, filtrate with a few drops of ferrous sulphate T.S.--grayish-purple precipitate; collect in autumn. Solvents: diluted alcohol; boiling water. Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.).

Arctostaphylos Usa-urvi.

Adulterations

Vaccin'ium Vit'is-Idae'a, Wineberry, Cowberry, Red Whortleberry -- leaves resemble uva ursi, but blackish, bristly points on under surface, and V. Uligino'sum, Bog Whortleberry, Great Bilberry -- leaves crenate, much thinner, under surface pubescent; Den'drium (Leiophyl'lum) buxifo'lium, Sand Myrtle, N. J., southward; small shrub, leaves oval, shining, margin revolute, reticulate; Bux'us semper'virens, Box, Bush-tree Dudgeon, cultivated in gardens, leaves ovate narrower toward apex than near the base; contain buxine and parabuxine (both giving bitterness), tannin, volatile oil, bitter extractive; Epigar'a re'pens, Trailing Arbutus (Mayflower, Ground Laurel, Gravel Plant), and Chimaphila umbellata, Pipsissewa; leaves resemble and both contain the three active constituents of uva ursi; used in lithic acid gravel. Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.).

Constituents

Arbutin. CHO, Ericolin, CHO, Urson, CHO, Tannin 6-7 p.c., ericinol, CHO, gallic acid, ellagic acid, coloring matter, ash 3 p.c.

Arbutin. -- A glucoside obtained by precipitating the decoction with lead subacetate, treating filtrate with hydrogen sulphide, and evaporating to crystallize.  It is in needles, bitter, soluble in alcohol or hot water, insoluble in ether, blue with diluted ferric chloride; with sulphuric acid yields glucose, arctuvin (hydroquinone), CHO.  Dose, gr. 3-5 (.2-.3 Gm.).

Ericolin. -- This is left in the mother-liquor from arbutin; it is a bitter glucoside, yellow, soluble in water, alcohol; yields glucose and ericinol (volatile oil.

Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi: Section of leaf epidermis (lower surface) showing large stomata.

Urson. -- Crystalline principle, resinous, obtained by exhausting with ether, evaporating, recrystallizing from alcohol; occurs in tasteless needles, insoluble in water, sparingly in alcohol ether.

Preparations

1. Fluidextractum Uvae Urssei. Fluidextract of Uva Ursi. (Syn., Fldext. Uvae Ursi, Fluid Extract of Uvae Ursi; Fr. Extrait fluide de Busserole; Ger. Barentraubenblatterfluidextrakt.)

Manufacture: Similar to Fluidextractum Ergotae, page 63; lst menstruum: water 50 cc., alcohol 30, glycerin 10; 2d menstruum: 33 p.c. alcohol; reserve first 80 cc. Dose, mxv-60 (1-4 cc.).

Unoff. Preps.: Decoction, dose, 3j-2 (30-60 cc.). Extractum Uvae Ursi (alcohol 30 p.c.), dose, gr. 5-15 (.3-1 Gm.). Infusum Uvae Ursi (Br.), 5 p.c., dose, 3ss-2 (15-60 cc.).

Properties

Astringent, diuretic, nephritic, tonic, disinfectant (due to the hydroquinone formed); large doses vomit, purge oxytocic.

Uses

Cystitis, gravel, chronic nephritis, urethritis, incontinence of urine, dysuria, strangury, uterine hemorrhage, gleet, leucorrhea, menorrhagia, urinary calculi, bronchitis, diarrhea, cardiac dropsy.

Allied Plants

1. Arctostaphylos glau'ca, Manzanita. -- California mountains, small tree; leaves 5 Cm. (2') long; contains arbutin, tannin 10 p.c., ash 6 p.c. A. Polifo'lia and A. Mucrocif'era, Mexico; both used like uva ursi.

Ar'eca Cat'echu, Areca Nut. -- East Indies; cultivated. Large palm tree 15-18 M. (50-60 degrees) high, fruit orange-color, size of hen's egg, contains 1 seed (nut), roundish, conical, 25 Mm. (1') long, 9 Mm. (3/8') thick, brown, with many reddish veins, inside horny, white, odor faint, taste astringent; contains fat 14 p.c., tannin, resin, arecoline, C8H18O2N (poisonous, taenifuge), arecaine, guvacine; astringent, taenifuge. Dose, 3ij-3 (8-12 Gm.

Areca Catechu.