Citrus Aurantium, var. sinensis, Linne'. The fresh, outer rind of the ripe fruit.

Habitat. Same as C. Aurantium (var. Amara).

Syn.Aurant, Dulc. Cort., Curacao, Navel (Seedless) Orange, Forbidden Fruit, Golden (Orange) Apple, Nerotia Flowers; Fr. Ecorce (Zeste) d'Orange Douce; Ger. Apfelsinnenchalen.

Si-nen'sis. L. (Chinensis) Chinese, of or belonging to China--i.e., its chief habitat.

Citrus Aurantium, var. Sinensis

Plant

Small tree, 4.5-6 M. (15-20 degrees) high, identical with C. Aurantium (var. Amara), differing only in point of variety, but having leaves and flowers more fragrant, and the fruit sweeter, larger, deeper yellow. RIND (zest), the outer orange-yellow layer recently separated by grating or paring, consisting of epidermal cells, parenchyma cells of sarcocarp with chromoplastids, oil reservoirs and globules of volatile oil; odor highly fragrant; taste pungently aromatic. Solvents: alcohol; water. Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.).

Commercial

This sweet fruit grows only by cultivation; was unknown to the Greeks and Romans, being introduced first into Europe by the Portuguese in the 15th century. There are now some fifty varieties cultivated in Spain, Portugal, Madeira, Azores, China, West Indies, S. and S. W. United States, many of which have been given commercial names after the districts of production, as China, Portugal, Havana, Florida, California, Messina, and Malta (blood-red). These are imported in boxes of 100-200, having each orange wrapped in tissue-paper, the sweetest coming to us from Havana, Florida, and California.

Constituents

Volatile oil, herperidin, (fixed oil, resin, gum, tannin, ash 4-5 p.c.).

Oleum Aurantii. Oil of Orange, U.S.P. -- (Syn., Ol. Aurant., Oleum Aurantii Corticis, U.S.P. 1900, Orange Oil, Oil of Sweet Orange, Oleum Aurantiorum, Essence (Essential Oil) of Orange; Fr. Huile d'Orange; Ger. Pomeranzenschalenol.) This volatile oil is produced mostly in S. Italy, Sicily, by expression from the fresh peel of the ripe fruit (sweet orange and its varieties), or rupturing the oil-glands mechanically and collecting the liberated oil, as with oil of lemon; if obtained by distillation the product is decidedly less fragrant. It is a yellow liquid, characteristic odor and taste of the outer part of sweet orange peel, sp. gr. 0.844; soluble in dehydrated alcohol, carbon disulphide, glacial acetic acid (1); neutral reaction, dextrorotatory; contains limonene (citrene, hesperidene), CH, 90 p.c., odor bearers (citral, citronellal, methyl ester of anthranilic acid).  Tests: 1.  With 90 p.c. alcohol (2) -- does not form clear solution (dif. from washed citrus oils).  2.  Evaporate 25 Gm. To dryness -- residue not less than 2 p.c. (dif. from washed citrus oils).)  3.  Should not have a terebinthinate odor or taste (abs. of oil of turpentine); must meet requirements for heavy metals.  The oil from the peel of bitter orange (N.F.) though chemically indistinguishable, has a superior flavor, but a limited production, and usually is mixed with this oil (sweet orange).  Oil having a terebinthinate odor must not be dispensed.  Should be kept cool, dark, in small, well-stoppered, completely filled, amber-colored bottles (to avoid developing terebinthinate odor).  Usually shipped in tinned-copper cans.  Dose, mj-5 (.06-..3 cc.).

Adulterations

Oil of turpentine, alcohol, etc.

Preparations

I. RIND: 1.  Tinctura Aurantii Dulcis.  Tincture of Sweet Orange Peel.  (Syn., Tr. Aurant. Dulc.; Fr. Teinture d'Orange douce; Ger. Apfelsinenschalentinktur.)

Manufacture

50 p.c.  Similar to Tinctura Cardamomi Composita, page 137--macerating 50 Gm. in alcohol 100 cc., filtering through purified cotton, and finishing with alcohol q.s. 100 cc.  Dose, 3j-2 (4-8 cc.); as a flavoring vehicle.

Preps.: 1. Syrupus Aurantii.  Syrup of Orange.  (Syn., Syr. Aurant., Syrupus Aurantii Corticis, Syrup of Orange Peel; Fr. Sirop d'Encorce d'Orange; Ger.    Pomeranzen(Orangen-schalen)-sirup.)

Manufacture

Triturate purified talc 1.5 Gm. with tincture of sweet orange peel 5 cc. And citric acid .5 Gm., and add gradually distilled water 40 cc., filter, add through filter distilled water q.s. 45 cc.: dissolve in this, by agitation, sucrose 82 Gm. (without heat), add distilled water q.s. 100 cc., mix thoroughly, strain; must not dispense when of terebinthinate odor or taste or shows other deterioration.  Dose, ad libitum -- flavoring.

2.  Elixir Gentianae Gllycerinatum, N.F., 1.5 p.c. 3.  Elixir Pepsini et Rennini Compositum, N.F., 5 p.c.  4.  Elixir Taraxaci Compositum, N.F., 6 p.c.  5.  Elixir     Terpini Hydrastis, N.F., 2 p.c.

II. OIL: 1.  Spiritus Aurantii Compositus,  Compound Spirit of Orange.  (Syn., Sp. Aurant. Co.; Fr. Esprit d'Orange composee; Ger. Zusammengesetzter Orangengeist.)

Manufacture

20 p.c.  Dissolve oil 20 cc., + oil of lemon 5, oil of coriander 2, oil of  anise .5 in alcohol q.s. 100 cc.  Should be kept in dark amber-colored bottles.  As a  flavoring vehicle.

Preps.: 1.  Elixir Aromaticum.  Aromatic Elixir.  (Syn., Elix. Arom., Simple Elixir;  Fr. Elixir aromatique; Ger. Aromatisches Elixir.)

Manufacture: 1 1/5 p.c.  To compound spirit of orange 1.2 cc., add alcohol q.s. 25, to this add syrup 37.5, in several portions with agitation, distilled water 37.5, purified talc 3 Gm., filter until clear, wash filter with 25 p.c. alcohol q.s. 100 cc. -- flavoring.

Preps.: 1.  Elixir Glycyrrhizae, 87.5 p.c.  2.  Numerous Elixirs -- as a vehicle.

2. Elixir Aletridis Compositum, N.F., 1 p.c., + 10 other N.F. Elixirs -- flavoring.  3.      Emulsa -- flavoring.

2.  Elixir Ferri (Pyrophosphatis, Quininae et Strychninae, N.F., 1/15 p.c.  3.  Elixir Pepsini Compositum, N.F., 1/5 p.c.  4.  Liquor Ferri Peptonati, N.F., 1/66 p.c.  5.  Liquor Ferri Peptonati et Mangani, N.F., 1/66 p.c.  6.  Spiritus Cardamomi Compositus, N.F., 2 p.c.  7.  Spiritus Myrciae, N.F., 1/20 p.c.  8.  Spiritus Vanillini Compositus, N.F., 5 p.c.  9.  Syrupus Quinidinae, N.F., 1/50 p.c.  10.  Tabellae Sulphuris et Potassii Bitartratis, N.F., 1/20 m, (.003 cc.).  11.  Trochisci Eucalypti Gummi, N.F., 1/20 m. (.003 cc.).

Properties And Uses

Aromatic; chiefly for flavoring and in perfumery.  Fruit deliciously edible.