Roccel'la (tincto'ria) and Lecano'ra (tarta'rea) species, or other lichens; Persio, Cudbear, N.F. -- Parmeliaceae. A purplish-red powder prepared from these lichens, yielding 12 p.c. ash; Holland. Made by heating lichens for a week with diluted ammonia, drying, powdering; alcoholic preparations deep red--lighter with acids, purplish-red with alkalies. To color preparations; 1, Tinctura Persionis, 10 p.c. (75 p.c. alcohol): Prep." 1. Syr. Phos. Co., 1/6 p.c. 2. Tinctura Persionis Composita, 1.5 p.c. + caromel 10 p.c. (33 p.c. alcohol): Preps.: 1. Elix. Ammon. Valer., 1/6 p.c.; 2. Elix. Cinchon, Alk., 5 p.c.; 3. Syr. Bromidor., 1/6 p.c.; 3. Elixir Aromaticum Rubrum, 1/5 pc.; 4. Elixir Bromidorum Trium, 1/5 p.c.; 5. Elixir Pepsini Compositum, 1/10 p.c.; 6. Liquor Aromaticus Alkalinus, 1/5 p.c.; 7. Syrupus Pini Albae Compositus, 1/10 p.c. Lacmus, Litmus, a blue pigment from these lichens by mixing (powder) with potassium carbonate, diluted ammonia water, exposing to air 6 weeks for fermentation, when it gradually turns red, purple, blue, and at the different stages is mixed with chalk and formed into cakes. Orchil is prepared likewise adding diluted ammonia, sulphuric acid and sodium chloride -- deep purple.

Curcuma starch.

Cur'cuma lon'ga, Turmeric. -- The rhizome, U.S.P. 1820-1870; S. Asia, Indian Ocean Islands. Plant is a perennial; leaves radical, 1 M. (3 degrees) long, lanceolate; flowerscape short, spike 15 Cm. (6') long, flowers orange- yellow, in pairs; rhizome 2.5-5 Cm. (1-2') long, 12 Mm. 1/2') thick (long turmeric) to 18-25 Mm. (3/4-1') thick (round turmeric), sometimes in sections, yellowish-gray, annulate, inside orange-yellow, fracture resinous; odor ginger-like; taste warm, aromatic; contains volatile oil 1 p.c., viscid oil 11 p.c., pungent resin, curcumin (coloring matter) .3 p.c., starch, ash 5-7 p.c. Powder deep yellow, brownish-red by alkalies or borax. There are several varieties: 1, Madras (best, bright yellow, often in cut pieces--Pubna preferred); 2, Bengal (reddish, mostly round); 3, Java (reddish-gray); 4, Chinese (often branched); 5, Cochin (possibly from C. Viridiflo'ra). Used as stimulant, tonic, aromatic, condiment, for jaundice, and as ginger. Tincture, 15 p.c., (diluted alcohol) for coloring ointments, solutions, etc.

Turmeric rhizome and stem.