Paullin'ia Cupa'na, Guarana, N.F. -- Sapindaceae. A dried paste consisting chiefly of the crushed seed, yielding not less than 4 p.c. of caffeine; N. and W. Brazil, Guiana, Venezuela. Woody climbing shrub; leaves imparipinnate; flowers yellowish; fruit size of grape, small horse-chestnut, 6-ribbed, splitting into 3 divisions, exposing 3 rounded brownish seed, size of filberts. Paste (guarana), usually cylindrical sticks 3-5 Cm. (1 1/5-2') thick, elliptical cakes, dark reddish-brown, hard, heavy; fracture uneven, often fissured in the center; internally pale reddish-brown, coarsely granular; odor slight; taste slightly astringent, bitter. Powder, light pinkish-brown -- parenchyma, altered and unaltered starch grains, sclerenchymatous cells with thick yellowish-non-lignified walls. Test: 1. Place .001 Gm. on slide, + 1 drop of gold chloride T.S., let stand -- crystals of caffeine and gold chloride separate in orthorhombic plates and needles; solvent: 75 p.c. alcohol; contains caffeine (guaranine) 3-5 p.c., tannin 26 p.c., resin, volatile oil, fixed oil, catechin, saponin, starch, gum, ash 2-5 p.c. Nervine, stimulant, tonic, astringent -- similar to coffee, tea, mate'; produces gayety, restlessness, quick perception, wakefulness; slows pulse, impairs appetite, occasions vesical irritation; nervous sick headache (migraine), such as occurs with menstruation and debauch, attended with bloodshot eyes and throbbing head; diarrhea of phthisis, convalescence, general tonic. Native Indians used powder mixed with cassava or chocolate as food, and the grated (filled -- 1-2 teaspoonfuls) suspended in cold sweetened water (1 cup) as their habitual exhilarating yellow beverage, similar to our coffee and tea, which in excess may cause palsy; however, readily controlled by effort. Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Guaranae (75 p.c. alcohol) -- contains 3.6-4.4 p.c. of caffeine, dose mxv-60 (1-4 cc.): Preps.: 1. Elixir Guaranae, 20 p.c., + aromatic elixir 20, comp. elixir of taraxacum q.s. 100; 2. Elixir Guaranae et Apii, 15 p.c., + fldext. celery fruit 15, fldglycer. glycyrrhiz., 3, glycerin 6, elix. aromatic q.s. 100, dose, each, 3j-3 (4-12 cc.). Extract, gr. 2-5 (.13-.3 Gm.): Infusion, 5 p.c., 3j-2 (30-60 cc.), Syrup, 3ij-4 (8-15 cc.); Tincture (extract 1, alcohol 30), 3j-4 (4-15 cc.). Sapin'dus margina'tus, S. Sapona'ria, Wild China Tree; S. United States. Fruit, resembling that of azedarach, used as antiperiodic; fruits of many species of this genus substituted for soap -- soap berries -- in the tropics.