Pterocarpus Marsupium, Rozburgh. The dried juice from the trunk, yielding not less than 45 p.c. alcohol-soluble extractive, or 80 pc. water-soluble extractive.

Habitat. E. India, in forests; C. and S. India (Malabar), Ceylon, Bengal.

Syn. Gummi (Resina) Kino, Vengay, Bastard Teak, Bija, Amboyna Kino Tree; Br. Kino, Kino Eucalypti (Eucalyptus (Red) Gum); Fr. Kino de l'Inde; Ger. Kino.

Mar-su'pi-um. L. marsupium, a pouch, bag, purse -- i.e., shape of the fruit.

Ki'no. E. India name as given the extract.

Plant

Large tree, 18-24 M. (60-80 degrees) high, .6-1 M. (2-3 degrees) thick, many spreading branches; bark brownish-gray, internally red and fibrous; leaves alternate, imparipinnate, deciduous; leaflets 5-7, alternate, 5-10 Cm. (2-4') long, obovate, emarginate, coriaceous; flowers May-June, pale yellow; fruit indehiscent pod, orbicular, 2.5-4 Cm. (1-1 3/5') broad; seed 1, kidney-shaped. JUICE (kino), in small, brittle, angular fragments, usually less than 10 Mm. (2/5') broad, dark reddish-brown, reddish-black; inodorous; taste very astringent; upon mastication coloring saliva pink.

Powder

dark red--angular fragments, with glass-like, conchoidal surface, thinner pieces translucent, yellowish-red, brownish-red; mounted in water--fragments rounded, gradually disintegrate, leaving colorless, granular particles, some being rod-shaped bacteria and a few cellular fragments; mounted in alcohol--red color of fragments deepens, translucency increases, the angular outlines being preserved while solution takes place. Tests: 1. Add boiling water, cool, filtrate faintly acid; with ferric chloride T.S.--dark green precipitate; with alkalies--reddish-violet color. Solvents: alcohol, to the extent of 90 p.c.; boiling water to the extent of 40-80 p.c.; alkalies, with impairment of astringency. Dose, gr. 5-20 (.3-1.3 Gm.).

Adulterations

Inferior juices, catechu, dragon's blood (insoluble in water), kinos containing gum (swelling in water, alcohol), etc.

Commercial

Plant, called natively Buja, is prized for fine timber and juice, the privilege of tapping trees for the latter being granted by the government to highest bidders; it is collected to some extent the entire year, but chiefly during inflorescence, dry season, February-March (when it is better and easier dried), by cutting into the tree-trunk to the cambium a perpendicular incision and lateral feeders; the juice, resembling currant-jelly, exudes freely into clay cups, bamboo-joints, etc., placed at the bottom of main incision, when it is dried in the sun and air (inspissated) or boiled to the consistency of a thick extract, occasionally skimming off impurities, then poured into shallow pans to dry until crumbly (half-inch layer requiring a week) and packed in wooden boxes for market. Trees yield most at night and when small often are killed by excessive bleeding, which may be averted by resting alternate years; each produces about 24 ounces (.7 Kg.) that upon evaporation becomes half as much kino. Liquid preparations, especially in diluted alcohol tend to gelatinize (with loss of astringency) from presence of an enzyme -- destroyed by boiling -- and should be kept in small bottles and seldom opened; the menstruum making a permanent solution is alcohol 65, water 20, glycerin 15 volumes, although alcohol 50, water 25, glycerin 25 usually gives satisfaction. There are several varieties: 1, Malabar (E. India), official, described above, rarely found on the market; 2. African (Gambia -- P. erina'ceus), similar to preceding, not in our market but common in England; contains tannin 50-60 p.c.; 3, Bengal (Palas, Buteae Gummi (Br.) -- bu'tea frondo'sa) in transparent ruby-red tears, fragments, often with leaf-vein impressions, brittle, not adhesive on mastication, yields pyrocatechin on dry distillation, one-third to one-half soluble in hot alcohol, the remainder being mucilaginous mtter; contains tannin 15-35 p.c.; 4. Australian (Botany Bay, Kino Eucalypti (Br.) -- Eucalyptus rostra'ta, E. amygdalina, E. resinif'era, and other species of Myrtaceae), not very brittle, adheres to teeth, tinges saliva red, soluble in alcohol, 80-90 p.c., in water, lessening with age; furnishes much of the present commercial kino; contains tannin 45-50 p.c.; 5, W. India (Jamaica, Caracas -- Coccol'oba uvif'era, Polygonaceae), obtained by boiling the violet-brown wood and bark of the large tree, evaporating the decoction; resembles official but has brownish tint, less glossy, bitter, soluble in water, alcohol (90 p.c.); contains tannin 70 p.c.

Constituents

Kino-tannic acid, CHO, 40-80 p.c., Kino-red, CHO Pyrocatechin (pyrocatechuic acid, catechol), CHO Kinoin, C-HO, gum, ash 1.3-2 p.c.

Kino-tannic Acid. -- Similar to catechuic acid, always mixed with coloring matter and pectin in extraction; with ferric salts--greenish-black, with ferrous salts in neutral solutions -- violet color.

Kino-red. -- Obtained by exposing cold aqueous solution to the air, when red precipitate slowly forms, hastened by heating, or heat kinoin to 130 degrees C. (266 degrees F.); it is amorphous, tasteless, nearly insoluble in water, and is the anhydride of kinoin: 2CHO-- H0 = CHO.

Pyrocatechin. -- Obtained by treating kino with ether, or the product of dry distillation of kino contains much of it, which may be purified by resublimation; soluble in ether, water.

Kinoin. -- Boil kino with diluted hydrochloric acid, kino-red immediately separates, now agitate clear solution with ether; occurs in white crystals, slightly soluble in ether, cold water, red with ferric chloride.

Preparations

1. Tinctura Kino.  Tincture of Kino.  (Syn., Tr. Kino; Fr. Teinture de Kino; Ger. Kinotinktur.)

Manufacture

10 p.c.  Agitate thoroughly in a flask 10 Gm. with boiling water 50 cc., heat for 1 hour on water-bath containing boiling water, shaking frequently, cool, add recently boiled water q.s. 50 cc., than add alcohol 50 cc., stopper flask, set aside in cool place for 24 hours, decant through cheesecloth.  Should be kept cool, dark, in small, tightly-stoppered bottles.  Dose, 3ss-2 (2-8 cc.).

Unoff. Preps.: Compound Powder of Kino and Opium, 75 p.c., + opium 5, cinnamon 20, dose, gr. 10-15 (.6-1 Gm.).  Compound Tincture of Kino and Opium, 20 p.c. (tincture), + tincture of opium 10, 3ss-1 (2-4 cc.).  Fluidextract, Infusion, Gargle.

Owing to gum (pectin) coagulating, the liquid preparations are very unstable, consequently catechu often is used instead with equally good results.

Properties

Astringent, tonic, hemostatic; similar to but less powerful than tannin; locally inferior to other astringents.

Uses

Diarrhea, pyrosis, menorrhagia, dysentery, leucorrhea, ulcers, sore throat, epistaxis, hemorrhages, diabetes, manufacture of wines.  Useful in dyeing and tanning, but rather too expensive.

Incompatibles

Aqueous solution is precipitated by gelatin, soluble salts of iron, silver, lead, antimony, mercuric chloride, sulphuric, nitric, and hydrochloric acids.