Punica Granatum, Linne'. The dried bark of the stem or root, with not more than 2 p.c. wood, or other foreign organic matter.

Habitat. S. W. Asia, India, Persia, Arabia, China, Japan, E. and W. Indies; naturalized in subtropics, S. United States, etc.; cultivated for fruit, ornamental flowers.

Syn. Granat., Pomegranate Bark, Grenadier, Punic (Carthaginian, Garnet) Apple; Granati Cortex; Fr. Ecorce de (Grenadier) Balaustier; Ger. Granatrinde.

Pu'ni-ca. L. punicus, of or belonging to Carthage, near which city it is said to have first been found, or fr. puniceus, scarlet -- i.e., the color of its flowers.

Gra-na'tum. L. granatus, having many grains or seeds, fr. granum -- i.e., the many- seeded fruit.

Plant

Shrub or small tree, 4.5 M. (15 degrees) high, branches angular, with spiny ends; young shoots and buds red. Leaves 2.5-5 Cm. (1-2') long, shining, lanceolate, entire, half evergreen; flowers June-Sept., large; calyx shining, scarlet, tubular, 3 Cm. (1 1/5') long, corolla crimson, 5-7 petals; fruit (balausta), 5-10 Cm. (2-4') broad, resembles an orange, quince, or tomato, 5-8-angled over the dissepiments, short-necked at top. Internally, below the median line, divided by a diaphragm into two stories -- upper with 5-9 irregular cells, lower and smaller with 1-3 vertical partitions (cells); seed angular 12 Mm. (1/2') long, so numerous that they, with the thin surrounding edible pulp, fill entire fruit. BARK (stem), in pieces 2-8 Cm. (4/5-3 1/5') long, .5-3.5 Mm. (1/50-1/7') thick, yellowish-brown, with patches of grayish lichens, elliptical lenticels, furrows or abraded patches of cork, wrinkled; inner surface light yellow, finely striate; fracture short, phelloderm dark green; inner bark yellowish-green; (root) in transversely curved pieces yellowish-brown, conchoidal depressions, irregular patches of cork; internally dark yellow, medullary rays extending nearly to outer surface; odor slight; taste astringent, bitter, nauseous.

Powder

yellowish-brown -- calcium oxalate in rosette aggregates, numerous starch grains, .002-.01 Mm. (1/12500/1-2500') broad, whitish cork, stone cells, long wood fibers, tracheae. Tests: 1. Macerate 1 Gm. for 1 hour in distilled water 100 cc., add to 10 cc. of yellow filtrate 1 drop of ferric chloride T.S. -- bluish-black precipitate; to another 10 cc. add 40-50 cc. Of calcium hydroxide T.S. -- orange-brown flocculent precipitate. Should be kept in tightly-closed containers. Solvents: boiling water; diluted alcohol. Dose, 3ss-2 (2-8 Gm).

Substitutions

1, Bux'us semper'virens, Boxwood Bark; 2, Berberis vulgaris, Barberry Bark; neither contain tannin, hence infusions do not precipitate blue-black with iron like pomegranate bark; they also are very bitter, and the former has a nearly white inner surface; 3, Granati Fructus Cortex; this contains tannin 19-28 p.c., extractive 21 p.c., gum 34 p.c., and has the same effect as the bark.

Commercial

Root-bark is three times stronger in alkaloids than stem-bark, but both deteriorate rapidly with age owing to the alkaloids undergoing decomposition; the white-flowered plant yields the richest bark which is imported chiefly in the dry state from France, Iraly, although we use much of our native product. In addition to bark occasionally the flowers, fruit, rind, and acidulous seed-coating are employed domestically; some prefer the bark from uncultivated plants.

Constituents

Tannic acid 20-22 p.c., Alkaloids 1.71 (black-flowered-2.43 (red-flowered)-3.75 p.c. (white-flowered)--Pelletierine (punicine) .5-1.5 p.c., iso-pelletierine, methyl-pelletierine, pseudo-pelletierine (granatonine), mannite (punicin, granatin), gallic acid, sugar, gum, pectin, calcium oxalate, ash 10-16 p.c.

Tannic Acid, CHON. -- This is a mixture of allotannic acid and punicotannic (granatotannic) acid, the latter insoluble in alcohol, ether, precipitates gelatin, tartar emetic, iron salts, with dilute acids splits into sugar and ellagic acid.

Pelletierine, CHON (in honor of Pelletier). -- This is obtained by mixing bark with milk of lime, displacing with water, exhausting percolate with chloroform.  It is regarded by Tanret, its discoverer, to be the anthelmintic constituent, and is a colorless, oily, aromatic alkaloid, resinifying on exposure, soluble in water, alcohol; forms crystalline salts (nitrate, sulphate, tannate, etc.) -- considered to be a mixture of the several alkaloids.  Dose, gr. 3-8 (.2-.5 Gm.).

Pelletierinae Tannas, Pelletierine Tannate, U.S.P. -- (Syn., Pellet. Tann., Punicine Tannate; Fr. Tannate de Pelletierine; Ger. Pelletierinum tannicum, Gerbsaures (Pelletierin) Punicin.)  This is a mixture in varying proportions of the tannates of four alkaloids (punicine, iso-punicine, methyl-punicine, pseudo-punicine), and is obtained by mixing ground bark with milk of lime, percolating with water until exhausted, shaking out percolate with chloroform, and chloroformic solution of free alkaloids with very dilute sulphuric acid; to neutral solution of mixed sulphates add solution tannic acid, whereby tannates are precipitated, dry.  It is a light yellow, odorless, amorphous powder, astringent taste and weak acid reaction, soluble in water (250), alcohol (16), ether (420), warm dilute acids, insoluble in chloroform; ash from .2 Gm. -- negligible.  Tests: 1. Aqueous solution with ferric chloride T.S. -- blue-black color.  2. Cold solution of .1 Gm. In 4 cc. of distilled water + 1 cc. of diluted hydrochloric acid, + platinic chloride T.S. -- no precipitate (abs. of many foreign alkaloids).  3. Dissolve .5 Gm. in sodium hydroxide T.S., shake with 4 successive portions of chloroform, 10, 5, 5, 5 cc., acidulate combined solutions with .1 cc. of hydrochloric acid, evaporate to apparent dryness, dissolve residue in 5 cc. alcohol, evaporate, dry 1 hour -- residue not less than 20 p.c.  Should be kept dark, in small, well-closed containers.  Dose, gr. 3-8 (.2-.5 Gm.) in 3j (30 cc.) of water.

Preparations

1. Fluidextractum Granati.  Fluidextract of Pomegranate.  (Syn., Fldext. Granat., Fluid Extract of Pomegranate; Fr. Extrait fluide d'Ecorce de (Grenadier) Balastier; Ger. Granatrindenfluidextrakt.)

Manufacture

Similar to Fluidextractum Ergotae, page 63; 1st menstruum: alcohol 50 cc., water 40, glycerin 10; 2d menstruum: diluted alcohol.  Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 cc.)

Unoff. Preps.: Decoction, 20 p.c., 3ss-2 (15-60 cc.).  Rind, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.).

Properties. -- Anthelmintic, tenifuge, astringent.

Uses

The ancients knew its value as a vermifuge (Celsus, Dioscorides, Pliny).  In Hindustan, Mohammedan physicians used it in tenia, one of whom made public the secret in 1804; French physicians prefer the wild-grown plant.  Externally and internally astringent; large doses occasion vomiting, purging, cramps, numbness in the legs, giddiness, dim vision, incresed urine.  The rind is also astringent in diarrhea, leucorrhea, hemorrhage, cancerous and other ulcers of uterus and rectum; intermittent fever.  For tape-worm take decoction made by boiling bark 3ij (60 Gm.) + water Ojss (.7 L.) down to Oj (.5 L.); give this in 3 divided doses at hour intervals in the morning on empty stomach.  It is well, a couple of hours after administration, to follow with castor oil 3j (30 cc.) or compound tincture of jalap 3j (30 cc.).  The worm should be passed sitting in a tepid sitz-bath, thus preventing the expelled portion tearing from the head by its weight; it passes usually in a knotted mass.  Pomegranate may also be used for tanning, dyeing; the fruit as a refreshing, cooling article of food.