See Ammonia, carbonate; potash, carbonate; soda, carbonate.
Carminative and stomachic. Dose, 1/2 oz. to 1 oz.; or double that quantity to cattle. Used in cordial balls and drenches; and often added to purgatives, to prevent griping. The essential oil is used for the same purposes, in doses of 10 to 30 drops. Mr. Youatt considers caraway and ginger the only cordials required for the horse.
Carminative. Dose, 1 to 4 dr.
Carminatives are stimulants which by their rapid impression on the stomach, etc, occasion the expulsion of wind, and cause relief from pain.
A warm, bitter tonic. Dose, 2 or 3 dr.
A warm stimulant. Dose, 1 to 2 dr.
Antispasmodic. 1/2 oz. has been given in locked jaw. Rarely used.
Laxative. It is uncertain as a purgative for the horse, and sometimes produces much irritation in large doses. 1/2 pint may be given, with watery solution of aloes, every six hours till it operates. Cattle require a pound, or pint; calves, 2 to 4 oz.; sheep and swine, I to 2 oz.; dogs, 2 to 4 dr., with syrup of buckthorn. The seeds are more active; from 2 to 6 are sometimes given to swine and dogs, crushed and mixed with food; but from their effects on man, their use would seem to require caution. They are much used by the native Indian farriers for the cure of mange.
Terra Japonica. Astringent. Dose for a horse, in diabetes, diarrhoea, etc, 1 or 2 dr. [Youatt], or to 1 oz. [Blaine]; cattle, 2 to 4 dr. in gruel. [It is usually combined with chalk, opium, and gum. - Youatt.] Dogs require from 10 to 40 gr. In India it is said to be given in doses of 2 oz., for the purpose of taming vicious horses. The tincture is useful in promoting the healing of wounds.
Purgatives (which see).
Solid or liquid substances which burn or destroy the part to which they are applied. The actual cautery consists in burning with an iron heated to whiteness.
Antacid and astringent. Horses require from 1/2 oz. to 1 oz.; cattle, 1 or 2 oz.; sheep and swine, 1 dr.; dogs, 10 to 20 gr. It is often combined with catechu. Externally it is sprinkled on sores.
A mild tonic, stomachic, and febrifuge. Dose, 1 to 4 dr. of the powdered flowers, or an infusion of 1/2 oz. of the flowers in a quart of water, in debility of the stomach, flatulence, and in the last stage of fevers, and influenza. It is the first tonic that should be used in convalescence. Ginger, or some other aromatic, is usually joined with it.
Antiseptic. Used as an application to foul ulcers, either sprinkled on them or mixed with poultices.
Compositions of an adhesive nature, usually mixed with tow, which adhere to the part to which they are applied, for some time. See Vet. Formulary.