Essential or Volatile Oils

The essential oils of peppermint, cloves, aniseed, caraway, etc, possesses in a concentrated state the warm carminative properties of the drugs from which they are distilled. They are frequently added to purgative medicines to prevent griping. Oil of juniper is diuretic, in doses of 1 to 3 dr. Oil of origanum is almost exclusively used outwardly in stimulating liniments. Oil of bitter almonds is poisonous.

Empyreumatic Oils

Oil of amber and other empyreu-matic oils are antispasmodic; but mostly used in outward applications. The fetid oil, called Dippel's Animal Oil (or oil of hartshorn), is sometimes given as a warm medicine, in doses of 1 oz. (sometimes increased to 2 oz.) to horses, or a drachm to small animals. As an outward application, it is sometimes added to powders against the fly in sheep; but injures the wool. Oils of paper or rag are empyreumatic fluids obtained by burning these sub-stances. Mixed with water, they are used in inflammation of the eyes, mouth, etc.

Compound Oils

See Oils and Liniments in the Veterinary Formulary.

Ointments

See Vet. Formulary.

Olive Oil

See Oils, Expressed.

Onions

Stimulant and diuretic. They are said to be useful in colic and gripes. Externally used in poultices to promote suppuration.

Opodeldoc

Soap liniment. Used externally only in stimulating liniments.

Origanum

Wild Marjornm. Stimulant. The essential oil is hot and pungent, and a frequent ingredient in liniments for old strains, and in blisters,

Orpiment

Yellow Arsenic. Poisonous. Used, mixed with lard, for fistulous sores, warts, etc, but is not free from danger.

Oxymel

Cooling and pectoral. Used in catarrhal affections. Dose, 3 to 4 oz.

Oxymel of Squills

A stimulating expectorant. Seldom used in veterinary practice.

Palm Oil

Emollient. Used in compounding ointments and liniments; and of late much commended as a basis of aloetic and other balls. It has also been given as a laxative; dose, 12 oz. or more.

Peppermint

Carminative. The distilled water and the essential oil are chiefly used. See Mint.

Black, White, and Long Pepper

Warm stimulant, cordial; the latter kind is chiefly used in veterinary practice. It must be carefully avoided in inflammatory complaints. Dose for horses and cattle, 2 to 4 dr. For Jamaica Pepper, see Allspice.

Cayenne Pepper

The ground pods of some species of capsicum. See Capsicum.

Periwinkle

The plant, in decoction or chopped up in a mash, is said to relieve quinsy. Pulverized and mixed with Ethiops Mineral, it has been vaunted as a remedy for glanders.

Peruvian Bark

See Bark, Peruvian.

Petroleum

See Barbadoes Tar.

Pewter

The scrapings are given to dogs for worms. Dose, 1/2 dr. to 1 dr. Tin filings are safer. See Tin.

Phellandrium

The seeds of water-fennel {Ph. aquaticum) are used in Germany in chronic catarrhal affections. Dose, 1/2 oz. to 1 oz.

Physic.In veterinary practice this term is applied to purgatives. See Physic or Purging Balls, Yet. Formulary.

Pimento

See Allspice.

Pitch

Stimulant, balsamic, probably diuretic; but rarely given internally. It is more frequently used externally in charges and warm plasters. For liquid pitch, see Tar.