How To Prevent and Remove Rust

Steel goods are rubbed over with a mixture of lime and oil, to preserve them from rusting. Mercurial ointment has been recommended for the same purpose. M. Payen recommends plunging the articles into a solution of common soda. Spots of rust arc removed by rubbing them with very fine emery and sweet oil; as a chemical means of removing them, the ammoniacal chloride of zinc may be found useful. See Zinc. To remove rust-spots from linen, oxalic acid or binoxalate of potash is commonly used. Runge recommends prussiate of potash. Dissolve a little in water, and just acidulate with sulphuric acid. The stained linen macerated in this water turns blue. Its whiteness is now restored by a solution of carbonate of potash.

Saxon Blue

See Chemic Blue. The solution of indigo in sulphuric acid, diluted with twice its weight of water, is so termed.

Scouring Drops for Removing Grease

1. Alcohol (pure) 6 oz., camphor 2 oz., rectified essence of lemon 8 oz.

2. Camphine 3 oz., essence of lemon 1 oz.; mix. Some direct them to be distilled together.

3. French. Camphine 8 oz., pure alcohol 1 oz., sulphuric ether 1 oz., essence of lemon 1 dr.

4. Spirit of wine a pint, white soap 3 oz., ox-gall 3 oz., essence of lemon 1/2 oz.


1. Blue. Shell-lac 2 parts, dammar resin,

2 parts, Bergundy pitch 1 part, Venice turpentine 1 part, artificial ultramarine 3 parts.

2. Light blue. As the last, with 1 part of dry sulphate of lead.

3. Dark Blue. Venice turpentine 3 oz., finest shell-lac 7 oz., clear amber or black resin 1 oz., Prussian blue 1 oz., carbonate of Magnesia 1 1/2 drs. The last two to be made into a stiff paste with oil of turpentine, and added to the melted shell-lac and Venice turpentine.


1. Venice turpentine 4 1/2 oz., shell-lac 9 oz., colophony 1/2 oz., lamp black mixed to a paste with oil of turpentine q. s.

2. Inferior. Venice turpentine 4 oz., shell-lac 8 oz.,

3 oz. of colophony, and sufficient lamp black mixed with oil of turpentine to colour it.

3. Shell-lac 8 oz., Venice turpentine 4 oz., lamp black 6 oz.

4. Common, for bottles. Resin 6 oz.; shell-lac 2 oz., Venice turpentine 2 oz., lamp black q. s.


1. Light Brown. Venice turpentine 4 oz., shell-lac 7 1/2 oz., brown earth (English umber?) 1/2 oz., cinnabar 1/2 oz., prepared chalk 1/2 oz., carbonate of magnesia moistened with oil of turpentine 1 1/2 drs.

2. Light Brown - Second quality. Venice turpentine 4 oz., shell-lac 7 oz., resin 3 oz., English umber 3 oz., cinnabar 1/4 oz., prepared chalk 1 oz., magnesia as the last.

3. Dark Brown. Venice turpentine 4 oz., fine shell-lac 7 1/2 oz., English umber 1 1/2 oz., magnesia as before.

4. Dark Brown - Second quality. Venice turpentine 4 oz., shell-lac 7 oz., colophony 3 oz., English umber 1 1/2 oz., magnesia as before.


Venice turpentine 2 oz., shell-lac 4 oz., colophony, 1 1/4 oz., King's yellow 1/2 oz., Prussian blue 1/4 oz., magnesia as for brown.