These are composed usually of animal fats, variously perfumed. The lard, veal fat, beef and mutton suet, bears' fat, and beef marrow, employed for this purpose, require to be prepared with great care. The following is, perhaps, the best mode: Cut the raw fat into pieces, carefully removing the fleshy and bloody portions of membrane, etc, and beat it in a marble mortar; melt it in a well-tinned vessel placed in boiling water, and strain the melted fat through a hair-sieve without pressure (reserving the residue to be heated again and pressed for more fat, to be used for commoner purposes). Keep the melted fat for some time gently warm, without disturbing it; remove any scum which may have arisen, and pour off the clear fat, taking care that none of the dregs or watery liquid which have subsided, pass with it. A mixture of these fats forms the basis of many varieties of pomades. Sometimes a little white wax is added. A greater degree of whiteness is said to be given, by adding to the liquefied fat a few grains of citric acid. The same end is promoted, by assiduously beating the pomade, while cooling, with a wooden spatula. To perfume pomatums, various essential oils, etc, are added (see Common Pomatum); but the finer sorts are perfumed by infusing fresh flowers in the melted fats for some hours, and straining; or, in other cases, the simple pomade is thinly spread on plates of glass set in frames, and the fresh flowers stuck in the scored surface of the fat, changing the flowers daily till the pomatum is sufficiently perfumed. As these compounds can seldom be prepared to advantage by the retailer, a few varieties only require to be noticed here. Common Pomatum. Mutton suet (prepared as above) 1 lb., common lard 3 lbs.; melt together in a water-bath, pour it into an earthen basin, and beat it assiduously with a wooden spatula. When sufficiently cool, add 2 oz. or q. s. of essence of bergamot or of lemon, and continue the stirring till nearly cold.
Rose Pomatum. Prepared lard 16 oz., prepared suet 2 oz.; melt with a gentle heat, and add 2 oz. of rose-water, and 6 drops of otto of roses. Beat them well together, and pour into pots before it is too cold. For making jessamine, violet, and orange pomade, put the same quantity of water, and 1 dr. of the essence.
Marrow Pomatum. Beef marrow and beef suet, coloured with a little annotto, may be employed for this and other yellow pomatums. For the perfumes employed for these and other pomatums, see Essence for scenting Pomatums, under Perfumery.
Pomade for Beautifying the Hair. Oil of sweet almonds a pint, spermaceti, 1 1/2 oz., purified lard 2 oz.; melt with a gentle heat; when nearly cold, add any agreeable scent, and pour it into pots or wide-mouthed bottles.
Bears' Grease (Artificial). Bears' grease is imitated by a mixture of prepared veal suet and beef marrow. It may be scented at pleasure; oil of lavender, with a very little oil of thyme, is sometimes used. The following are some of the compounds sold under this name:
3. Olive oil 4 flasks, white wax 4 oz., spermaceti 2 oz.; scented with otto of roses and oil of bitter almonds.
Green Bears' Grease. Bears' grease digested with fresh walnut leaves, and strained. This is repeated with more leaves till the pomade is sufficiently coloured; it is then scented with oils of rosemary, thyme, and bergamot.
German Pomade, for strengthening the Hair. Take 8 oz. of purified marrow, melt it in a glass or stoneware vessel, and add 1 1/2 oz. of fresh bay leaves, 1 oz. of orange leaves, 1 oz. of bitter almonds, 1/2 oz. of nutmegs, 1/2 oz. of cloves, and 1 dr. of vanilla, all bruised; cover the vessel, and let the whole digest for 24 hours, with a gentle heat; strain while warm through linen, and stir it as it cools.
Hard or Roll Pomatum. 1. Suet 5 lbs., white wax 8 oz., spermaceti 2 oz., oil of lavender and essence of ambergris, of each 1/2 oz.
2. Beef suet 16 oz., white or yellow wax 1 oz., with 1 dr. of oil of lavender or of bergarnot.
3. Lard melted with one third or half its weight of white wax, and poured into semi-cylindrical paper moulds when nearly set. This is sold under the name of cos-metique. It is sometimes coloured to match the hair. See after Hair Dyes, further on.
Circassian Cream. Two flasks of oil, 3 oz. of white wax, 2 oz. of spermaceti, 1/2 oz. of alkanet root. Digest the oil with the alkanet till coloured, strain, melt the wax and spermaceti with the oil, and when sufficiently cool add 2 1/2 drs. of English oil of lavender, and 1/2 dr. of essence of ambergris.
Crystalline Cream. Oil of almonds 8 oz., spermaceti 1 oz.; melt together; when a little cooled add 1/2 oz. or less of essence of bergarnot, or other perfume; put it into wide-mouthed bottles, and let it stand till cold.
Camphorated crystalline cream may be made by using camphorated oil (Lin. CamphorAe) instead of oil of almonds.
Castor Oil Pomade. Castor oil 4 oz., prepared lard 2 oz., white wax 6 drs., essence of bergarnot 2 drs., oil of lavender 20 drops, eau de Cologne 1/2 dr.; stir till cold.
Crystalline Castor Oil Pomade. Castor oil 16 oz., spermaceti 1 3/4 oz.; melt together, and when a little cool, add 1 oz. of essence of bergarnot, 1/2 dr. oil of verbena, 1/2 dr. oil of lavender; pour it into wide-mouthed bottles, and let it stand till cold.
Castor Oil and Glycerine Pomade. Dissolve white wax 1 1/2 oz. with a moderate heat in 3 oz. of castor oil, triturate with 9 oz. of castor oil and 2 oz. glycerine until cool. Then add essence of lemon 5 drs., ess. of bergarnot 2 drs., oil of lavender 1 dr., oil of cloves 10 drops. Rub annatto gr. x with 1 dr. of water till smoothly suspended, add 1 dr. of alcohol, and stir the colouring into the pomade until thoroughly mixed. - American Recipe.
Fox's Cream. Marrow pomatum 2 oz., oil of almonds 2 oz.; melt, and add while cooling, with constant stirring, essence of jessamine or of bergamot 2 drs. - Bateman.
Glycerine and Lime Cream. Glycerine, oil of sweet almonds, and lime water, of each 8 oz., tincture of cantha-rides 1 oz. Perfume as desired.
Lime Juice and Glycerine. Lime juice 1/2 pint, rose water 1/4 pint, glycerine 2 oz., rect. spirit 2 oz., oil of lemon 30 drops.
Quillai Bark. Stir a piece of the bark in some water till a strong lather is produced, and rub it on the hair with a rough towel. Thus used it is an excellent remedy for dandruff.