They are all stimulant, diuretic, and expectorant; and in larger doses, vermifuge and purgative. Dose of common turpentine, 1/2 oz. to 1 oz. They are used in digestive ointments. Oil or spirit or turpentine is a more stimulating diuretic, in doses of 2 to 4 dr.; it is also considered efficacious as an antispasmodic in colic (gripes), and as a remedy for worms. Dose for the latter purposes from 2 oz. to 4 oz., or sometimes still larger doses. To cattle (in hooze, from worms in the bronchial passages), about 2 oz. To sheep, in rot, 1 dr. It is not a safe medicine for dogs; but is sometimes given in doses of 2 dr. with olive oil. Externally it is used in stimulating liniments, embrocations, ointments, etc. It is very irritating to the skin of the horse, and also of the dog, instantly producing great excitement. Like the common and Venice turpentine, it enters into the composition of some digestive ointments.
Bearberry. Astringent. Dose, 4 to 6 dr. in diabetes. Girarde says it inflames the stomach.
A stimulant acting chiefly on the nervous system. Dose, for horses and cattle 1 to 4 oz. in powder. 2 oz. twice a day have been given to a horse without any observable effect. In dogs it is said to act as a vermifuge, Pose, 1 to 4 dr.
Suhacetate (or Diacetate) of Copper. Tonic, caustic, poisonous. It has been given in doses of 1 dr. to 2 dr. daily, in farcy and glanders. Externally detergent and caustic, in ointment, and in the form of .Aegyp-tiacum. The crystallized acetate of copper is more powerful in its action.
Properties and uses the same as of vinegar; but preferred by some for outward use.
Diaphoretic, cooling, and antiseptic. In combination with honey, it is used in coughs. In large quantities, it irritates the stomach; a pint is said to have destroyed a horse. It should always be plentifully diluted. Vinegar which contains much sulphuric acid should be avoided. It is chiefly used as an external application, as a lotion for strains, bruises, sprains, and inflammations; and hot as a revulsive. The vapours are thought to possess disinfecting properties, but are less effectual than chlorine.
See Sulphate of Copper.
The green shells are astringent, and sometimes applied, bruised, as a cataplasm, or in a decoction as a lotion.
Besides its use as a drink, and as a vehicle for medicine, water is used remedially, on the hydropathic system. Rags wetted with cold water, and well covered with dry ones, are used to produce persprration, their operation being assisted by copious draughts of cold water, adding 4 oz. of sweet spirit of nitre to each pailful. This treatment is said to have succeeded in epidemics of pleuropneumonia.