This section is from the book "Dental Medicine. A Manual Of Dental Materia Medica And Therapeutics", by Ferdinand J. S. Gorgas. Also available from Amazon: Dental Medicine.
Iodoform....... 1- 5,000
Salicylic acid......1- 2,000
Carbolic acid .....1- 1,500
Chloride of zinc.....1- 1,250
Permanganate of potash . 1- 1,000 Listerine . . .....1- 120
Hydrargyri Chloridum Mite - Mild Chloride of Mercury. Calomel. Mercurous Chloride. Formula. - HgCl.
Calomel is obtained by subliming a mixture of mercurous sulphate and chloride of sodium, a double decomposition taking place, by which mercurous chloride and sulphate of sodium are formed. The mercurous sulphate thus employed is obtained by boiling mercury in sulphuric acid and triturating the resulting mercuric sulphate with mercury.
To remove any corrosive sublimate which the calomel may contain, it is washed with hot distilled water until the absence of a white precipitate with ammonia shows that the poisonous ingredient has been removed. Calomel is in the form of a white, inodorous, tasteless powder, insoluble in water, alcohol and ether, and wholly volatilized by heat. Calomel is incompatible with the alkalies, and alkaline earths, and alkaline carbonates, with lead, copper and iron. When nitro-muriatic acid is combined with it, corrosive sublimate is formed ; neither should it be given in combination with iodine.
Calomel and the other mercurials are employed as alteratives, sialagogues, purgatives, diuretics, etc., and moderate doses increase the action of the secreting glands and organs, stimulating the salivary glands in a very decided manner. When large doses are administered the effects are manifested on the gums, which become tender and swollen, the salivary glands take on increased action, the saliva and buccal mucus flow profusely, the mucous membrane of the mouth becomes inflamed and ulcerated, the tongue swollen and the breath fetid, with a metallic, copper taste, and the teeth become loose; such symptoms constitute the condition known as salivation. When the use of the drug is discontinued these symptoms disappear, but the mucous membrane and gums are ever after more susceptible to irritation, and the stability of the teeth is more or less impaired, as is shown by the recession of the gums and the absorption of the alveolar processes. In many cases the gums, especially about the necks of the teeth, remain somewhat tumefied, with a tendency to ulceration.
If the use of the mercury is continued beyond the stage which the symptoms just described indicate, or even as the effects of small doses in persons very susceptible to the influence of mer-curv, an excessive salivation ensues, with serious ulceration of the gums and mucous membrane of the mouth, loss of the teeth, and even necrosis of the bones of the jaws. Mercury has also the effect of causing considerable emaciation, from the absorption of fat, and sometimes a peculiar febrile state known as mercurial fever; and also diarrhoea, skin diseases, rheumatism, neuralgia and disorder of nervous system. Mercury, after it is absorbed, has a decided effect upon the blood, which it impoverishes, destroying the red blood globules (hematine and globuline); the blood contains more water, is more prone to putrefaction, and the unnatural fluidity predisposes to hemorrhage, which may become dangerous.
Mercury in the form of calomel, blue mass (Pilulte Hydrargyri - pills of mercury - mercury 3ij ; confection of rose 3iij, and powdered liquorice root 3j), are employed as alteratives, sialagogues, indirect tonics and cholagogues, and purgatives in syphilis, diseases of the skin, bilious derangements, dyspepsia, acute glandular affections, diarrhoea and dysentery of infants, hepatic disorders, croup and membranous laryngitis, cholera, etc., etc.
Of calomel, gr. 1/10 to gr. x; of blue pills, or mass, gr.ss to gr. xv. Mercurials are administered by the mouth, by inunction, by fumigation, and by the hypodermic method.
Mercurial Ointment - Unguentum Hydrargyri. Blue ointment is made by rubbing two parts of mercury with one part of suet and lard each, until the globules disappear. When rubbed into the skin, it produces the constitutional effects of mercury, and is applied to tumors, syphilitic sores, blistered surfaces, and is used to destroy pediculi, and also to prevent pitting in smallpox.
Hydrargyrum cum Creta, a gray powder, consists of mercury, three parts, prepared chalk, five parts. It is a gentle laxative, when given in full doses, and is antacid, and employed chiefly as an alterative in infantile diarrhoea, etc.
Of mercury with chalk, for adults, gr. v to xx; for children, gr. ss to ij, iij or x.
The effect of mercurial preparations upon children is sometimes very serious, as a profuse, or even gentle salivation will, at times, cause mortification and destruction of the bones of the jaw, the teeth, the cheek and lip; and although such cases may not be common, yet, to avoid such a powerful action, the gums should be frequently and carefully examined, when a course of such remedies is being pursued.
Protiodide of Mercury - Hydrargyrum Iodidum Viride known also as Green Iodide of Mercury - is prepared by rubbing mercury and iodine together with the addition of a little alcohol. The formula is Hgl, and it is in the form of a greenish-yellow powder, insoluble in water and alcohol, but soluble in ether. Exposure to the light partially decomposes it, when it becomes of a dark olive color.
Protiodide of mercury is internally administered in scrofula and scrofulous syphilis. It exercises a specific influence over the lymphatic and glandular system. It should never be given at the same time as iodide of potassium, as it converts it into bin-iodide and metallic mercury.
Gr. 1/6 to j.
Externally, protiodide of mercury is applied, in the form of ointment, to syphilitic ulcers, acne, pityriasis, etc., etc.
Red Iodide of Mercury. Mercuric Iodide. A red powder which becomes yellow when heated and red again when cold. It is wholly volatilized by heat, and condenses in scales, which are first yellow, but afterwards red. It is insoluble in water, but soluble in boiling alcohol and solutions of iodide of potassium and chloride of sodium. Poisonous.
Gr. 1/50 to 1/10.. It is a powerful germicide.
Vermilion. Cinnabar. In brilliant crystalline masses of a deep-red color and fibrous texture. It is entirely volatilized by heat. It is not soluble in either nitric or muriatic acid, but a mixture of the two acids will dissolve it. Cases have been cited in support of the asserted poisonous effects of vermilion, where it has been used as a coloring matter for dental vulcanite, but a careful analysis as well as evidence based upon scientific investigation, fails to establish the truth of such a theory. Vulcanite composed only of pure caoutchouc and sulphur, known as "black vulcanite," possesses advantages over the red vulcanite, in being of finer texture, more dense, and less spongy, and consequently less liable to absorb and retain the secretions of the mouth, in the case of an artificial denture constructed of it.
For Diarrhaea of Dentition.
Calomel......gr.ij ad vj
Ipecacuanhae pulv. . gr.ij Extract hyoscyami . gr.iij ad vj. F. chart, No. vj. SlGna. - One every 2 or 3 hours according to circumstances.
For Febrile Excitement of Dentition.
Calomel......gr.ij ad iij
Magnes, calc. . . . gr.xxiv Ipecacuanhae pulv. . gr.ij to iij F. ch. No. xij. Signa. - One to be given every 3 hours.
For Venereal Sore Mouth and Throat.
Hydrar. chlor. corrosi gr.j Mellis despumati . . Aquas destillatae . . . Signa. - To be used as a gargle.
For Warts, Condylomata, etc.
Hydrar. chlor. corrosi
To be applied as a caustic, with a camel's-hair brush.
For Diarrhaea of Teething Children. Hydrargyri cum cretae, Pulv. ipecac et opii . aa gr.j. M. Signa. - One powder.