Alcohol (C2H5OH = 45.70) is a fermentation derivative of amylaceous substances.

Pharmacodynamics.

Central Nervous System. - Alcohol is a depressant of the entire nervous system, acting first on the highest and least stable areas - those evolutionally latest acquired - and progressingly depressing all the nervous functions in reverse order to their evolutionary development.

Muscular System. - Alcohol diminishes muscle co-ordination.

Respiration. - No extensive or constant change determinable.

Heart. - Any variation due to reflex or psychic influences.

Blood-pressure. - No definitely constant change determinable.

Alimentary Canal. - Irritant.

Metabolism. - Its most definite effect is the lowering of vital resistance to disease.

Temperature may be lowered through peripheral vasodilatation.

Absorption is rapid, about 20% taking place in the stomach, and 80% in the small intestine.

Excretion. - 95% of small amounts is oxidized in the tissues; the balance is excreted by the lungs and kidneys.

Tolerance may be acquired against the immediate acute manifestations.

Symptoms.

Acute Alcoholism.

Conviviality.

Exaggerated ego.

Loquacity.

Impaired will.

Combativeness.

Maudlin sentimentality.

Meaningless anger.

Moral and social decline.

Inco-ordinated movements.

Nausea.

Drowsiness.

Torpor.

Chronic Alcoholism.

General catarrhal conditions.

Defective nutrition.

Impaired intellection

Tremors.

Hallucinations.

Manias.

Paralyses.

Idiocy.

After these acute symptoms wear off the patient usually suffers from severe headache; he is morose and suspicious, melancholy and depressed, and exceptionally irritable.

Therapeutics.

It is becoming generally recognized that Alcohol has little utility in internal medicine. Applied externally, it is a mild antiseptic, and acts as an indurant to the skin.

Alcohol 61

Green = irritation. Violet = depression.