Cinchona is the dried bark of several species of Cinchona (Fam. Rubiaceae). Yellow Cinchona is chiefly from C. Calisaya and C. Ledgeriana; Red Cinchona is obtained from C. succirubra - all native trees of South America. In the bark of Cinchona are found over 25 different alkaloids, the most important of which is Quinine, though the sulphate salts of both Cinchonidine and Cinchonine are official. There are nine official salts of Quinine; the Hydrochloride and the Tannate amply meet all indications for quinine action. The Sulphate has had the widest use hitherto.

Properties:

O. Hydrochloride = 81.7% Quinine

Q. Sulphate = 74.3% Quinine

Q. Tannate = 35% Quinine

Appearance

Color

Odor

Taste

Sol. H2O

Reaction

Sol. H2O + acid

Sol. C2H5OH

Incompat. Test

Na2CO3 T. S.

Na2B4O7 T. S.

Pb(C2H3O2)2 T. S.

HgI2(KI)2

Specific Test

2gtt. Bromine -)+

+ BaCl2 =

4- FeCl3 T. S. =

1 mil NH4OH =

+ HC1 =

Dose (anti-malar.)

1 Gm.

1 Gm.

0.2 Gm.

Quinine is specific for malaria, in a great percentage of all cases. It has very little therapeutic efficiency otherwise.

The other official alkaloids and salts are: Quinina, Q. Bisulphas, Q. Dihydro-chloridum, Q. Salicylas, Q. Hydrobromidum, and Q. et Ureae Hydrochloridum.

From Yellow Cinchona are made a Fluidextract and a Tincture; from Red Cinchona, a Compound Tincture (Huxham's).