Thyroid Extract is derived from the dried thyroid glands of sheep.

Pharmacodynamics.

Elicited by large doses.

Central Nervous System. - Obscure irritations of the higher centers, the medulla, and the anterior columns of the cord.

Muscular System. - Efficiency lowered, probably reflexly.

Respiration. - No effect.

Heart accelerated and weakened; centric. An inconstant result.

Blood-pressure lowered; probably as a reflex.

Alimentary tract is irritated.

Secretory Glands. - Kidney epithelium lowered in vitality.

Metabolism. - Thyroid increases protein waste, fat oxidation, fluid elimination, nitrogen and phosphorus excretion, and modifies to some extent the metabolism of carbohydrates.

Excretion. - A part of the contained iodine is excreted in the urine in the form of iodides.

Symptoms.

Cranial congestion, acceleration and palpitation of the heart, muscular weakness, tremors, diarrhea, increased urine, thirst, loss of weight.

Therapeutics.

Thyroid seems specific in some forms of sporadic cretinism. It is also of benefit in cachexia thyreopriva, and sometimes in some types of myxoedema.

Dosage.

Thyroideum Siccum, 0.2 Gm.

The Thymus Gland, derived from sheep, produces an acceleration of pulse, from direct action on the heart; and a fall in blood-pressure, from paralysis of the vasoconstrictors.

Therapeutics. - It has been used for exophthalmic goiter, but not with encouraging success.

The Pituitary Body (extracts of the pars intermedia) causes a slowing of the heart, from both centric inhibition and local action; and a rise in blood-pressure from stimulation of the vasoconstrictor fibers. It also causes, by local action, a contraction of the muscles of all vessels and organs, except in the kidney, where there is produced a dilatation of the vessels, with a great increase of urine.

Therapeutics. - Not as yet satisfactorily developed, though used with much apparent success in obstetrics. Liquor Hypophysis, I mil.

Ovarian Extract does not seem to have yielded any pharmacological data, as yet. It has been used with more or less success in combating the nervous and nutritional disturbances accompanying the normal or artificial menopause.