Demulcents are used for their action in coating inflamed mucous surfaces, thereby protecting from irritation.

For the throat, Mucilago Ulmi.

For the stomach and bowels: Emuisum Amygdalae, Bismuth.

Emollients are bland substances applied to the skin. Examples: Adeps lanae, Petrolatum, Glyceritum.

Counterirritants inflame the skin and act reflexly by heightening sensibility in that region of the cord receiving the sensory fibers irritated, and thereby affecting the condition of all parts supplied by such nerves as have synapses in that same region of the cord.

Mild rubefacient: Spiritus Camphorae, 50%.

Strong rubefacient: Oleum Terebinthinae Rectificatum.

Rubefacient and occasional vesicant: Tinctura Iodi; also Sinapis Alba.

Astringents. - Vegetable astringents used to be largely employed for checking diarrheas; but modern treatment aims now at the cause, so the use of these astringents has nearly been abandoned.

Mineral astringents are employed for their effect in coagulating albumins.

Examples are: Alumen, Argenti Nitras, Cupri Sulphas.

Carminatives are substances used to relieve flatulency and gastro-intestinal unrest. They act through their mild irritation on the mucosa, increasing blood-supply and stimulating secretion.

Tinctura Cinnamomi, 2 to 4 mils.

Spiritus Menthae Piperitae, 0.6 to 2 mils.

Spiritus Gaultheriae, 0.6 to 2 mils.

Protectives are substance which, by coating a surface with a relatively permanent and insoluble pellicle, exclude air, water, and other irritating material.

Examples: Collodium, Tinctura Benzoini, Zinci Stearas.