The application of cold is used to modify congestion. It has a double action: (1) the abstraction of heat, and (2) a reflex counterirritancy. It is indicated in localized inflammations, and in high fever.
Cold bathing is stimulant to hardy individuals because of its causing a superficial vasoconstriction followed by vasodilatation, thereby hastening normal, healthful metabolism.
Lavage is a simple cleansing of the mucosa of the stomach
Enteroclysis is a temporary measure used to cause evacuations of the bowels, or to quickly supply a source of liquid renewal of the blood in case of hemorrhages.
Douches are used for the cleansing of body cavities, for the local application of medicaments, and for reflex effects.
Nutrient enemata are employed to supply nourishment to the system whenever the normal avenue is from any reason proscribed. All food should be predigested with pancreatin.
Heat is used to promote inflammatory action in restricted areas, to relax tissues, to hasten circulation and thereby accelerate metabolism, to stimulate the emunctory function of the skin by vasodilatation, and to act as a counterirritant.
Hypodermoclysis is the supplying of liquid to the blood-stream by infiltrating some subcutaneous tissue with normal salt solution, or preferably with Locke's solution.
Transfusion is the utilizing of another's blood to supply a deficiency, in quantity or constituents, in the blood of the patient.
Inhalations are of use as a convenient means of applying atomized medicaments to the respiratory tract, and of utilizing in the throat and bronchi the soothing relaxing effect of hot vapor.
Rest is a means of giving a part needed time for recuperation.
Gymnastics are useful in promoting more active metabolism by muscle movements. The stimulated circulation is accompanied by increased oxidation and augmented elimination of katabolic products.
Dieting is the scientific supplying to the body of just those food constituents, and in the form necessary for assimilation, that the body demands. Were correct dieting universally understood and applied more than half of our present illnesses would disappear.
Starving is a measure taken to give the body time to complete elimination of the accumulated waste in the tissues, and to adjust itself to the immediate metabolic requirements. It has produced what seem to be cures in diabetes, and is an excellent measure in plethoras of bowels, lungs, or circulation.