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Laboratory Manual Of Pharmacology



The fundamental reason for laboratory work in any subject, not entirely observational, is the training it gives in systematic observation. One of the best possible methods for developing adequate apprehension of the essentials of a problem is to require the student to record his observations in an orderly, systematic manner. To serve so valuable an end, this Manual is provided with definite leaders and spaces for recording the relatively more important data. The student thus works with directed purpose to discover important pharmacologic facts for himself.

TitleLaboratory Manual Of Pharmacology
AuthorA. D. Bush
PublisherF. A. Davis Company
Year1919
Copyright1919, F. A. Davis Company
AmazonLaboratory manual of pharmacology

Including Materia Medica, Pharmacopaedics And Pharmacodynamics

By A. D. Bush, B.Sc, M.D. Professor of Pharmacology, University of North Dakota.

Illustrated With Full-Page Plates Many In Colors

Laboratory Manual Of Pharmacology 1
-Illustrations
Aconitum napellus (colored) .................................................................. 11 Aconite in Flower (Aconitum- Napellus) ..................................................... 12 ...
-Introduction
The fundamental reason for laboratory work in any subject, not entirely observational, is the training it gives in systematic observation. One of the best possible methods for developing adequate appr...
-Introductory Definitions
PHARMACOLOGY is that science which treats of medicines. Materia Medica is that branch of Pharmacology concerned with the origin and composition of drugs, together with their physical and chemical p...
-Part I. Materia Medica
In this section are presented for study the more important medicines official in the United States Pharmacopoeia. The student is asked to note carefully the more important physical properties, and som...
-Acacia
Acacia, or Gum Arabic, consists of the dried, gummy exudate from the stems and branches of Acacia Senegal and other species of Acacia (Fam. Leguminosae), trees indigenous to sandy soils in Central Afr...
-Acetanilidum
Acetanilid is made by treating aniline with glacial acetic acid in the presence of heat, with purification of the residue by sublimation and recrystallization. Properties: Form ........
-Acids Used As Medicines
Acidum Aceticum Dilutum. Prepared by mixing 12 parts of the official Acetic Acid with 61 parts of water. It should contain about 6 per cent, hydrogen acetate (CH3COOH). Properties: Color .............
-Aconitum Napellus
Acidum Tartaricum (C4H6O6). Usually obtained from argol. Properties: Appearance..................................................................................
-Aconitum
Aconite, or Monkshood, as it appears in commerce, is the dried, tuberous root of Aconitus Napellus ( Fam. Ranunculacece), a perennial herb about 1 metre high, growing in mountainous regions of Europe,...
-Adeps
Adeps, or Lard, is the purified internal fat taken from the abdomen of the hog (Sus scrofa). Properties: Appearance..............................................
-Aether
Ether is a highly inflammable liquid made by distilling and purifying a mixture of alcohol and sulphuric acid. It should contain at least 95.5% ethyl oxide (C2H5)20. Being highly inflammable it should...
-Aethylis Carbamas
Urethane is the ethyl ester of carbamic acid, obtained by treating a carbamide with ethyl alcohol. It should be kept in well-closed containers. Properties: Ap...
-Aethylis Chloridum
Ethyl Chloride, or Monochlorethane, is prepared by treating absolute ethyl alcohol with hydrochloric acid gas. The product is very volatile, highly inflammable, and must be protected from light. Sp...
-Alcohol
Alcohol (C2H5OH) is obtained by the distillation of a fermented amylaceous substance. The official Alcohol contains less than 8% by weight of water. Properties: ...
-Aloe
Aloes is the inspissated juice obtained from the leaves of several species of Aloe, a West Indies plant of the family Liliaceae. Three varieties are found in commerce: the Socatrine, the Curaçao, and ...
-Alumen Exsiccatum
Burnt Alum is prepared by subjecting ammonium alum or potassium alum to a temperature not exceeding 2000 C, until the water of crystallization has been expelled. When recently prepared it should conta...
-Ammonium
Of the seven official salts of Ammonium two only have the characteristic ion action. These are the Carbonate and Chloride. Ammonium Carbonate is a varying mixture of acid ammonium carbonate and amm...
-Antimonii Et Potassii Tartras
Tartar Emetic is made by suitably combining potassium bitartrate with the oxide of antimony. Properties: Appearance..............................................
-Argenti Nitras
Silver Nitrate (AgNO3) is prepared by treating pure silver with pure diluted nitric acid, with crystallization. The salt should be kept in dark, amber-colored bottles, away from light. ...
-Arseni Trioxidum
White Arsenic, or Arsenous Acid, is a sublimation product obtained by roasting arsenical ores. Properties: Appearance............................................
-Balsamum Peruvianum
Balsam of Peru is an exudate from the bruised trunk of Toluifera Pereirce (Fam. Leguminosce), a tree of Central America. Properties: Appearance..........................................
-Belladonna Folia - Belladonna Radix
In use in medicine are a number of preparations made from the leaves and roots of Atropa Belladonna (Fam. Solanacece), a bushy perennial, native of Eurasia, but cultivated in northern temperate zones ...
-Benzoinum
Benzoin is a balsamic resin obtained from Styrax Benzoin (Fam. Styracacece), trees of the Malay Peninsula and Dutch East Indies. Properties: Appearance..................................
-Atropa Belladonna
Heat a few fragments in a test-tube, and note the character of the sublimate The compound tincture is frequently used as an inhalant in steam for the treatment of acute laryngitis. The official ...
-Benzosulphinidum
Saccharin is the anhydride of ortho-sulphamide-benzoic acid; it is a laboratory product of toluene. Properties: Appearance.............................................................
-Bismuthi Subcarbonas
Bismuth Subcarbonate is obtained by the interaction of ammonium carbonate and purified bismuth nitrate. It is rather variable in chemical composition. Properties: Appearance............
-Caffeina
Caffeine is a xanthine compound derived from the dried seeds of Coffea arabica (Fam. Rubiacecc), a native of Arabia. It is also obtained from the leaves of Thea sinensis (Fam. Ternstraemiaceac); an As...
-Calcium
A number of lime salts are official, though none of them has any extended utility. Properties: Preparation Appear. Color Odor Taste ...
-Camphora
Camphor (C10H16O) is a purified sublimate obtained by distilling the wood of Cinnamomum Camphora (Fam. Lauraceae), trees native to Eastern Asia. Properties: A...
-Cannabis
The Cannabis, or Indian Hemp of commerce, consists of the dried flowering tops of the pistillate plants of Cannabis sativa and C. indica (Fam. Moraceae). It contains a resin, Cannabin. Properties o...
-Cascara Sagrada
Cascara consists of the dried bark of Rhamnus Purshiana (Fam. Rhamnaceae), a small tree of Northern California. Properties of the powdered bark: Appearance..............................
-Chloralum Hydratum
Chloral is the hydrated product of trichloraldehyde (CCI3COH + H20). Properties: Appearance.................................................................................................
-Chloroformum
Chloroform, or Trichlormethane (CHCI3), is prepared on a commercial scale by treating a pure acetone with chlorinated lime. Usually, less than 1% of alcohol is added to prevent decomposition. Chlorofo...
-Cinchona
Cinchona is the dried bark of several species of Cinchona (Fam. Rubiaceae). Yellow Cinchona is chiefly from C. Calisaya and C. Ledgeriana; Red Cinchona is obtained from C. succirubra - all native tree...
-Cocaina
Cocaine is an alkaloid obtained from the leaves of Erythroxylon Coca and other species of the family Erythroxylaceae, tall shrubs native to equatorial South America. The hydrochloride salt of the alka...
-Colocynthis
Colocynth is the pulp of the dried fruit of Citrullus Colocynthis (Fam. Cucurbi-tacece), a native of Southwestern Asia and Northern Africa. Properties: Appear...
-Cresol
The official Cresol is a purified mixture of those isomeric cresols distilled from coal-tar at temperatures varying between 1900 C. and 2050 C. Properties: Appearance..................................
-Digitalis
Digitalis, or Foxglove (originally Folk's glove), consists of the carefully dried leaves of Digitalis purpurea (Fam. Scrophulariaceae). Properties: D. Leaf: ...
-Ergota
Ergot is the carefully dried hyphae of Claviceps purpurea; a fungus growing on the unripe fruit of rye, wheat, and corn, that growing on rye constituting the official ergot. This should be kept in opa...
-Ferrum
The more important Iron preparations are: Ferri Carbonas Saccharatus = 15% FeCO3. Average dose, 0.25 Gm. Ferri Chloridum = 20% Fe. Average dose, 0.06 Gm. Ferri et Quininae Citras, = 13% Fe, and ...
-Gentiana
Gentian consists of the dried rhizome and roots of Gentiana lutea, (Fam. Genti-anacecc), a perennial herb of Central Europe. Properties of powdered Gentian: Appearance.....................
-Glycerinum
Glycerin, or Glycerol, is a trihydric alcohol obtained by hydrolysis of vegetable or animal fats, or fixed oils, and purified by distillation. Properties: Appearance ...................
-Glycyrrhiza
Licorice consists of the dried rhizome and roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra, (Fam. Leguminosae), coming from both Spain and Russia. The Spanish variety is somewhat the darker. Properties of powdered Lic...
-Hexamethylenamina
Hexamethylenamine is a product obtained by treating 40% formaldehyde solution with stronger ammonia water. It should be kept in tight containers. Properties: Appearance.................
-Hydrargyrum
Hydrargyrum Hydrarg. Chloridum Corrosiv. Hydrarg. Chloridum Mite Hydrarg. Iodidum Flavum Hydrarg. Oxidum Flavum Hydrarg...
-Hyoscyamus Niger
Other less important preparations of Mercury are: the Red Iodide, the Red Oxide, and the Salicylate. ...
-Hydrastis
Hydrastis, or Golden Seal, consists of the dried rhizome and roots of Hydrastis canadensis (Fam. Ranunculaceae), perennial herb, native to Northern United States and Canada. It owes its activity to an...
-Hyoscyamus
Hyoscyamus, or Henbane, consists of the dried leaves and flowering tops of Hyos-cyamus niger (Fam. Solanaceae), a biennial herb native to Eurasia, but cultivated in England and North America. Prope...
-Iodum
Iodine is a non-metallic element, formerly derived largely from kelp, but now obtained chiefly from Chilean saltpetre. It should be kept in glass-stoppered bottles in a cool place. Properties: ...
-Ipecacuanha
Ipecac consists of the dried root of Cephaelis Ipecacuanha, and C. acuminata (Fam. Rubiacece), small plants native to Colombia and Brazil. The drug owes its activity to two alkaloids - emetine, whose ...
-Jalapa
Jalap consists of the dried tuberous root of Exogonium Purga (Fam. Convolvu-lacece), a perennial herb, native to Eastern Mexico. It yields not less than 7% of resinous principles. Properties of Jal...
-Magnesii Sulphas
The Sulphate of Magnesia, or Epsom Salt, contains approximately 50% anhydrous magnesium sulphate. It should be kept in tight containers. Properties: Appearance..........................
-Methylis Salicylas
Methyl Salicylate is obtained by distillation from Gaultheria procumbens (Fam. Ericacece). A chemically-identical substance is similarly obtained from Betula lenta (Fam. Betulacece); or it may be made...
-Nux Vomica
Nux Vomica consists of the dried ripe seeds of Strychnos Nux-vomica (Fam. Loganiaceae), a small tree indigenous to Indo-Asia. It owes its activity principally to the alkaloid strychnine, of which it c...
-Olea
Oils are liquid or solid substances, unctuous to the touch, and characterized by inflammability and the property of leaving a greasy stain upon paper. They may be arranged in two classes, Fixed and ...
-Opium
Opium is the concrete, air-dried, milky juice that exudes from incisions made in the unripe seed capsules of Papaver somniferum (Fam. Papaveracece), an herbaceous Asiatic plant. When Opium is dried at...
-Paraffinum
Paraffin is a purified mixture of solid hydrocarbons expressed from petroleum distillates of higher boiling points. Properties: Appearance..................................................
-Petrolatum
Petrolatum is a purified mixture of methane hydrocarbons. It is obtained from petroleum by distilling off the more volatile portions. Petrolatum Album is petrolatum decolorized by filtering through...
-Phenol
Phenol is hydroxybenzene. It is customarily obtained from coal-tar by securing the oils boiling at 1820 C, purifying, and redistilling. It is also made synthetically from benzene or from aniline. It s...
-Phenylis Salicylas
Salol is the phenyl ester of salicylic acid. Properties: Appearance............................................................................ Odor.............................
-Physostigma
Physostigma, or Calabar Bean, consists of the dried ripe seeds of Physostigma venenosum (Fam. Leguminosece), a climbing woody plant of Western Africa. Its principal activity is due to the alkaloid phy...
-Pilocarpus
Pilocarpus consists of the dried leaflets of Pilocarpus Jaborandi, and P. microphyl-lus, (Fam. Rutacece), woody shrubs native to Northeastern Brazil. From its principal alkaloid, pilocarpine, are prep...
-Podophyllum
Mandrake consists of the dried rhizome and roots of Podophyllum peltatum (Fam. Berberidacece), a perennial herb growing wild in shady thickets and woods in the United States and Canada. It should yiel...
-Potassium And Sodium
The salts of these two metals may be studied together, inasmuch as their respective actions are closely similar, the K ion being probably the more irritant of the two. Where the same salts of both met...
-Rheum
Rhubarb consists of the rhizomes and roots of Rheum officinale (Fam. Polygon-acece) and other species of Rheum, coming from China and Thibet. Properties of the powdered Rhubarb: Appeara...
-Saccharum Lactis
Milk Sugar, or Lactose, is prepared from the whey of cow's milk. It should be kept in tight containers as it readily absorbs various odors. Properties: Appearance..........................
-Senna
Senna consists of the dried leaflets of Cassia acutifolia (Fam. Leguminosce), an African shrub, and Cassia angustifolia, a plant growing in India. It owes its medicinal action to the presence of an am...
-Serum Antidiphthericum Purificatum
This Serum represents a solution in normal saline of the diphtheria antitoxins derived from the blood plasma of a properly immunized horse. Note its appearance............................. Color......
-Serum Antitetanicum Purificatum
This Serum represents a solution in normal saline of the tetanus antitoxins derived from the blood plasma of a properly immunized horse. It has a potency of not less than 100 units per mil. Note it...
-Sinapis
Sinapis, or Mustard, consists of the dried ripe seeds of Sinapis alba and of Bras-sica nigra (both of the Fam. Cruciferce), natives of Europe, but extensively cultivated elsewhere. These two Mustards ...
-Sulphur
Sulphur is official in three forms: Sulphur Lotum, or Washed Sulphur; Sulphur Praecipitatum, or Milk of Sulphur; and Sulphur Sublimatum, or Flowers of Sulphur. The Washed Sulphur is best for internal ...
-Terpini Hydras
Terpin Hydrate is obtained by crystallizing the hydrate of the diatomic alcohol, Terpin, out from a mixture of alcohol, nitric acid, and rectified oil of turpentine. Properties: Appe...
-Thymol
Thymol is a phenol derived from the volatile oil of Thymus vulgare (Fam. Labi-atce). It should be kept in well-closed containers. Properties: Appearance ................................
-Vermifuge Drugs
Besides the thymol studied above, several other drugs are used for the expulsion of worms from the human body. These are: Aspidium, which consists of the rhizomes and stipes of Dryopteris Filix-mas...
-Virus Vaccinicum
Vaccine Virus consists of the specially prepared, glycerinated, lymphocytic exudates found in the dermal manifestations of vaccinia in young bovines. It is prepared in selected establishments, working...
-Zincum
Eight salts of Zinc are official, besides the metal. The Acetate is superfluous in medicine, while the Valerate is inert. Zn. Carb. Praecip. Zinci Chlorid. ...
-Zingiber
Ginger consists of the dried rhizomes of Zingiber officinale (Fam. Zingiberacece), an herb native to Hindustan, but cultivated in all subtropical countries. It owes its activity to an aromatic volatil...
-Glandular Preparations
Pancreatinum, Pepsinum, Suprarenalum Siccum, Thyroideum Siccum. Pancreatinum is an extract of the fresh pancreas of hog or of ox, and consists principally of the enzymes, amylopsin, trypsin an...
-Part II. Pharmacopedics
In this section the student acquires a desirable acquaintance with the different forms in which medicines are used, by personally making the different official preparations, and carefully noting their...
-Aquae
Aquae are solutions of volatile substances in water. The volatile substance may be a liquid, a solid, or a gas. Prepare official Aqua Cinnamomi as follows: Triturate together 0.2 mil oil of cinnamo...
-Syrupus
Syrups are concentrated solutions of sugar in water or in aqueous liquids. They may be made extemporaneously by adding a medicated liquid to the official Syrup. Besides being a pleasant vehicle, Syrup...
-Spiritus
Spirits are hydroalcoholic or alcoholic solutions of volatile substances; and, while the greater number are solutions of volatile oils, a few represent solutions of volatile liquids, volatile solids, ...
-Elixiria
Elixirs are sweetened, aromatic, alcohol solutions. Because of the high alcohol content, they make good vehicles for the administration of tinctures and fluidextracts. They are not suitable as vehicle...
-Infusa
Infusions are aqueous extracts of the water-soluble constituents of vegetable substances. They are usually made by treating the substance with boiling hot water; but if heat injures the vegetable ...
-Decocta
Decoctions are aqueous extracts of the water-soluble constituents of vegetable substances, extracted by boiling for 15 minutes. The standard formula for Decoctions makes the original weight of the dru...
-Liquores
Liquors arc aqueous solutions of non-volatile substances. (Cf. Aquae.) They may be made by simple solution of the substance in hot or cold water, or by chemical action. Prepare the official Liquor ...
-Linimenta
Liniments are liquid preparations, usually of an oily or soapy nature, intended for external use as embrocations. Prepare the official Linimentum Saponis as follows: In 70 mils alcohol dissolve 4.5...
-Mucilagines
Mucilages are aqueous solutions of the viscid, gummy principles of some vegetable substances. Their principal uses are for the preparation of emulsions, and as excipients in pills. They do not keep...
-Emulsa
Emulsions arc aqueous preparations wherein oils or resins are maintained in a fine state of subdivision and suspension by means of the presence of mucilaginous or other viscid substances. Prepare t...
-Pulveres
Powders are triturated mixtures of dry medicinal substances. Except for Seidlitz Powder, the official powders are all insoluble. Prepare the official Pulvis Cretae Compositus as follows: Thoroughly...
-Misturae
Mixtures are aqueous preparations containing insoluble substances, or those but partly soluble. They are not to be filtered or strained, but are to be dispensed with a Shake label. Prepare the of...
-Massae
Masses are solid preparations of such soft cohesiveness that they may be formed readily into pills. Prepare the official Massa Ferri Carbonatis (Vallet's Mass) as follows: Dissolve 10 Gm. ferrous s...
-Pilulae
Pills are medicinal substances formed into ovate, oblate, or spheroidal solids, of such size and consistency as to be easily swallowed whole. When they contain medicaments readily changeable in air, p...
-Unguenta
Ointments are fatty preparations of such consistency as to melt and spread rapidly at body temperatures. Formerly extensively used as protective surgical dressings, they are now principally employed f...
-Cerata
Cerates are unctuous fatty preparations, similar to ointments, but having a higher melting point, and not liquefying at the body temperature. Prepare the official Ceratum as follows: By the heat of...
-Emplastra
Plasters are solid, adhesive preparations, spread on some fabric, and usually requiring warming before being applied to the body. Prepare as follows a satisfactory substitute for the official Empla...
-Glycerita
Glycerites consist of solutions of medicinal substances in glycerin. Prepare the official Glyceritum Amyli as follows: Triturate 5 Gm. starch with 5 mils water until a smooth homogeneous mixture is...
-Suppositoria
Suppositories are conical, cylindrical, or spheroidal preparations made by combining medicinal substances with some other substance, like glycerinated gelatin or cacao butter, that melts but slowly at...
-Oleata
An Oleate is a solution of an alkaloid or of an oxide in oleic acid. Prepare the official Oleatum Hydrargyri as follows: In a tared porcelain dish place 2.5 Gm. finely powdered yellow mercuric oxid...
-Collodia
A Collodion is a solution of pyroxylin (gun-cotton) in a mixture of ether and alcohol. It is a highly inflammable liquid. When applied to a surface, the solvent evaporates, leaving deposited a transpa...
-Fluidextracta
Fluidextracts are liquid preparations of vegetable drugs, so made that 1 mil of the liquid preparation represents the medicinal activity of 1 Gm. of the powdered drug. With four exceptions (Cascara...
-Extracta
An Extract is the concentrated residue obtained by evaporating the percolate, or other exhaust, of a vegetable drug. According to the degree of evaporation, Extracts appear in two forms: the Pilular E...
-Tinctura
Tinctures are alcoholic preparations made by extraction of the important medicinal principles of vegetable drugs. Two exceptions are the Tincture of Iodine and Ferric Chloride, which are alcoholic sol...
-Resina
Resins are precipitates from strong alcoholic extracts of water-insoluble principles. They usually contain the major portion of the active principles of the drug. Prepare the official Resina Podoph...
-Magmae
Magmas are thick, bulky suspensions in water of insoluble substances. Prepare the official Magma Magnesiae (Milk of Magnesia) as follows: Smoothly mix 12.5 Gm. magnesium carbonate (in fine powder...
-Prescriptions
Compound the following prescriptions: Quininae bisulphatis 1 25 Sacchari lactis, q. s. ...
-Tables of Metric Equivalents
Milligram Grains Approx. Milligram Grains Approx. Milligram Grains Approx. 0.1 ...
-Part III. Pharmacodynamics
{Laboratory: Nine hours a week for one semester.) In this section of the Manual the student is expected to ascertain what physiological reactions are produced by some of the more important and powe...
-Anaesthesia
Ether, Chloroform, Nitrous Oxide, Ethyl Chloride. i. Take 3 frogs of equal size, weight, and condition. Count respirations, and note general reflex excitability. Place No. 1 in a flask fitted with ...
-Morphine Pharmacodynamics
1. Into the anterior lymph sac of a male frog inject I mil of a 4% solution Morphine Sulphate. Observe reactions for 2 hours in comparison with a normal frog of equal weight and with another frog of s...
-Morphine Pharmacodynamics. Continued
why drug was ordered at this time,.................................................................................................................................................. Maximal variatio...
-Strychnine Pharmacodynamics
1. Take 3 frogs of equal weight and condition. Pith the brain of one, and the cord of the other; leave the third normal. Noting exact time of administration, inject into the lymph sac of each frog 0.2...
-Atropine Pharmacodynamics
1. To a frog administer by anterior lymph sac 0.010 Gm. Atropine Sulphate. Observe respiration and reflexes in comparison with a frog of equal weight and condition similarly drugged one hour previousl...
-Atropine Pharmacodynamics. Continued
________________________________________________________________ Experiment No. 9. Summary Of Evidences From Laboratory And Literature ___________________________________________________________...
-Pilocarpine And Physostigmine
1. Obtain a heart tracing from a frog with pithed brain. Apply 2 drops 0.6% solution Pilocarpine to the frog's heart, carefully noting any variations in the record. Wash the heart with normal saline (...
-Caffeine Pharmacodynamics
1. Carefully make 2 muscle preparations, place them in glass capsules, connect with weighted muscle levers, and obtain contraction records using minimum break shocks only. Fill one capsule with Locke'...
-Chloral Hydrate Pharmacodynamics
1. Select 3 frogs of equal weight and condition. By anterior lymph sac administer the following amounts of a 2% solution of Chloral Hydrate: 0.5 mil to frog No. 1, 1 mil to frog No. 2, 1.5 mil to frog...
-Digitalis Pharmacodynamics
1. Into the thigh lymph sac of a pithed frog inject 0.5 mil standardized Tincture Digitalis, diluted with an equal amount of Ringer's solution. Expose the heart, and keep it under observation for an h...
-Epinephrin Pharmacodynamics
1. Expose the heart of a pithed frog; connect with heart lever, and obtain a normal tracing. Apply to the heart 2 minims Epinephrin solution, 1 to 1000, and continue tracings, noting whatever effect m...
-The Nitrite Series
1. Prepare a frog for heart tracings, and secure normals on both the slow and fast drum. Into the anterior lymph sac inject o.1 mg. Nitroglycerin. Take frequent sample graphs on both drums. 2. Plac...
-Aconite
1. Into the anterior lymph sac of a frog inject 0.3 mil Tincture Aconite, diluted with equal amount normal saline. Observe effect on the various reflexes. 2. Expose the heart of a pithed frog; secu...
-Antipyrin
1. Determine the effects on respiration and the reflexes of a frog of 0.1 Gm. Antipyrin injected into the anterior lymph sac. 2. Determine effect produced by bathing a frog's heart with a 1% soluti...
-Cocaine
1. Make two muscle preparations. Place them in glass capsules, and obtain normal curves with both the slow and fast drums. Then fill one capsule with Ringer's solution, and the other with Ringer's con...
-Alcohol Pharmacodynamics
1. Pith the brain of a frog. Obtain normal heart tracings; bathe heart with 20/o Alcohol, and note results. 2. Obtain normal heart tracings from a pithed frog. Administer by stomach 1 mil 20% ...
-Cannabis Pharmacodynamics
1. Determine what effect Cannabis has on the heart of a frog when the drug is administered by stomach in the dose of 0.3 mil of the Tincture. 2. Determine the effect on the reflexes of a frog when ...
-Part IV. Pharmacology
This section has been written for the purpose of presenting the leading data of Pharmacology in a compact, concise form. In the average text-book on any subject, the essential facts are not infrequent...
-Strychnine Pharmacodynamics #2
Strychnine (C21H22N2O2 = 331.73) is an alkaloid derived from the dried ripe seed of Strychnos Nux Vomica, a tree indigenous to southeastern Asia. Pharmacodynamics. Central Nervous System. - Stry...
-Caffeine
Caffeine (C5H(CH3)3N402 .H20 = 210.64) is a feebly basic substance derived from the berries of Coffea Arabica and from the dried leaves of Thea Chinensis. Pharmacodynamics. Central Nervous Syste...
-Alcohol Pharmacology
Alcohol (C2H5OH = 45.70) is a fermentation derivative of amylaceous substances. Pharmacodynamics. Central Nervous System. - Alcohol is a depressant of the entire nervous system, acting first on ...
-Chloral Hydrate
Chloral, or trichloraldehyde (C2HCI3O + H2O = 164.12), is obtained by treating absolute alcohol with chlorine. Pharmacodynamics. Central Nervous System. - Chloral depresses the receptive functio...
-Morphine
Morphine (C17H19NO3 + H20) is an alkaloid of Opium. Opium is the dried juice of Papaver Somniferum, an Asiatic plant: Pharmacodynamics. Central Nervous System. - The higher cortical centers are ...
-Apomorphine
Apomorphine (C17H17NO2 = 265.17) is a derivative of Morphine, obtained through the removal of one molecule of water. Pharmacodynamics. Central Nervous System. - Apomorphine in man seems to have ...
-Cannabis Pharmacology
Cannabis is obtained from the flowering tops of Cannabis Sativa, or Indian Hemp, a sub-tropical plant. It owes its activity to a red oil, cannabinol, a phenolaldehyde with the composition OH.C20H28COH...
-Nicotine
Nicotine (C14H10N2 = 160.96) is the principal alkaloid of Nicotiana tabaccum. It is decomposed, during the combustion of tobacco in smoking, into pyridine and other pyrrol products.* The toxicity of N...
-Cocaine Pharmacodynamics
Cocaine (C17H21NO4 = 300.92) is an alkaloid derived from the leaves of Ery-throxylon coca, an indigene of South America. Pharmacodynamics. Central Nervous System. - Cocaine produces a brief prim...
-Atropine
Atropine (C17H23NO3 = 287.04) is an alkaloid derived from the leaves and root of Atropa Belladonna, the Deadly Nightshade. Pharmacodynamics. Central Nervous System. - Atropine primarily stimulat...
-Pilocarpine
Pilocarpine (C11H16N202 = 206.63) is an alkaloid derived from the leaves of Pilocarpus jaborandi, a shrub of eastern Brazil. Pharmacodynamics. Central Nervous System is depressed in the lower ce...
-Physostigmine
Physostigmine (C15H21N3O3 = 273.20), or Eserine, is the principal alkaloid of Physostigma venenosum, an African plant. Pharmacodynamics. Central Nervous System. - Physostigmine produces a depres...
-Ether And Chloroform
Ether is an alcohol derivative. Chloroform is obtained by the action on alcohol of calcium hydroxide and bleaching powder. Pharmacodynamics. Central Nervous System. - Ether and Chloroform pro...
-Epinephrin
Epinephrin, or adrenalin (C9H13NO3 = 181.76) is an active principle derived from the suprarenal glands of the ox and the sheep. Pharmacodynamics. Central Nervous System. - Epinephrin stimulate...
-Ergot
Ergot is the sclerotium or spawn of Claviceps purpurea, a fungus parasitic on the grain of rye and other grains. Pharmacodynamics. Central Nervous System. - Ergot stimulates the myoneural juncti...
-Nitroglycerin
Nitroglycerin, or glonoin, (C3H5(N03)3 = 255.44) is obtained by mixing glycerin with nitric and sulphuric acids. Pharmacodynamics. Central nervous system is not affected directly. Muscular sy...
-Digitalis Pharmacology
Digitalis is the dried leaves of the second year's growth of Foxglove, Digitalis purpurea. Pharmacodynamics. Central Nervous System. - Stimulation in the medulla of the cardio-inhibitory (and va...
-Aconitine
Aconitine (C34H47NO11 = 640.55) is an alkaloid derived from Aconitum napellus, or Monkshood, a perennial herb. Pharmacodynamics. Central Nervous System. - Marked stimulation of the medulla. M...
-Veratrine
Veratrine (C32H52N2O8 = 588.02) is an alkaloid found in the rhizome and rootlets of Veratrum Viride, or Green Hellebore, a perennial herb of northern America, Europe, and Asia. Pharmacodynamics. ...
-Antimony
Antimony (Sb. = 119.3) is extracted from the native sulphide, chiefly, occurring in France, Germany, and Ontario. Pharmacodynamics. Central Nervous System. - Depression from direct action on the...
-Quinine
Quinine (C20H24N2O2 + 3H2O = 378.26) is an alkaloid derived from the bark of several species of Cinchona, trees of South America. Pharmacodynamics. Central Nervous System. - Slight stimulation, ...
-Bromides
The Bromides are the bromine salts of the alkali metals. The principal salts in use are those of sodium and potassium. The Bromide action is best obtained from the sodium salt. Pharmacodynamics. ...
-Acetphenetidin
Acetphenetidin (C10H13NO2 = 177.79) is produced by the action of glacial acetic acid on para-amidophenetidol. Being the least dangerous, it is selected as a type of the aniline analgesic antipyretics....
-Salicylic Acid
Salicylic Acid (HC7H5O3 = 137.05) is a monobasic acid obtained from Oleum Betuloe, or made synthetically by treating phenol with sodium carbonate and carbon dioxide. Pharmacodynamics. Central Ne...
-Ipecacuanha Pharmacodynamics
Ipecacuanha is the dried root of Cephaclis Ipecacuanha, a perennial herb native to Brazil. Pharmacodynamics. Central Nervous System. - No direct action known. In frogs a central paralysis is pro...
-Iodides
The Iodides are the iodine salts of the alkali metals. Pharmacodynamics. Central Nervous System. - Very large doses paralyze the depressor terminals in the medulla. Secretory Glands. - Urine ...
-Colchicine
Colchicine (C22H25NO6 = 396.23) is an alkaloid-like principle found in the seeds and corm of Colchicum autumnale, a perennial plant of south-central Europe and northern Africa. Pharmacodynamics. ...
-Camphor
Camphor (C10H16O = 150.98) is a stearopten derived from Cinnamomum Camphora, a tree of Japan, China, Formosa, and Eastern Africa. Pharmacodynamics. Central Nervous System. - Camphor produces a d...
-Phosphorus
Phosphorus (P = 30.77) is a non-metallic element, usually obtained from bones and certain minerals. Pharmacodynamics. Central Nervous System. - Little changed. Muscular System. - Not affected...
-Arsenic
Arsenic (As = 74.4) is a metal usually found in combination with cobalt, tin, and copper ores. Pharmacodynamics. Central Nervous System. - Peripheral neuritis and secondary cord degeneration in ...
-Mercury
Mercury (Hg = 198.5) is a metal obtained by roasting the native sulphids. Mined in the Americas, Spain, Japan, and Australia. Pharmacodynamics. Central Nervous System. - Higher centers are invol...
-Iron
Iron (Fe = 55.5) is found widely distributed in nature, but its principal native form is that of the oxide. It is an important constituent of the blood and other animal tissues, and of many vegetable ...
-Lead
Lead (Pb = 205.35) is an element occurring largely in ores in the form of the sulphide. Found chiefly in the upper Mississippi valley. Pharmacodynamics. Central Nervous System. - Lead is irritan...
-Male Fern (Aspidium)
Male Fern is the dried root of Dryoptcris filix-mas, or Dryopteris marginalis, perennial herbs of the north temperate zone, and mountainous regions of the tropics. Pharmacodynamics. Central Nerv...
-Santonin
Santonin (C15H18O3 = 244.29) is the lactone of santonic acid,,derived from the flower heads of Levant Wormseed (Artemisia pauciflora), a plant of Northern Turkestan and Russia. Pharmacodynamics. ...
-Inorganic Salts
Sodium Chloride, in dilute solution, causes the tissues to become swollen and softened; whereas, in concentrated solutions, it tends to extract water from the tissues. Consequently, the red blood-corp...
-Hydrates And Carbonates Of The Alkalies
The pharmacodynamics of this group is due entirely to the non-metallic ion. These substances have a soapy, detergent feeling in the mouth; are neutralized in the stomach, unless in large quantities...
-Internal Secretions
Thyroid Extract is derived from the dried thyroid glands of sheep. Pharmacodynamics. Elicited by large doses. Central Nervous System. - Obscure irritations of the higher centers, the medulla,...
-Ferments
Pepsin is a ferment derived from the stomach of the pig. Its sole known action is that of proteolysis, acting in an acid medium only. Its use is indicated in those rare conditions where there is kn...
-Bile
Bile is obtained from the ox. When administered by mouth, bile is absorbed from the stomach and intestines and carried to the liver, where it stimulates the secretion of both the liquid and solid cons...
-Serums
Antidiphtheric Serum is derived from the blood of a horse in which high immunity has been produced by a succession of gradually increasing doses of diphtheria toxin. This immunity is the result of the...
-Antiseptics, Disinfectants And Germicides
Acidum Boricum is a feeble deterrent of germ growth. It is advantageously employed as a collyrium and in douches. Aqua Hydrogenii Dioxidi is a useful disinfectant on surfaces and in freely flush-ab...
-Cathartics And Purges
Purgative Oils. Castor Oil is decomposed in the small intestine, and the resulting ricinolates are so irritant as to induce increased secretion and peristalsis. Castor oil is used as a broom to ...
-Miscellaneous Preparations
Demulcents are used for their action in coating inflamed mucous surfaces, thereby protecting from irritation. For the throat, Mucilago Ulmi. For the stomach and bowels: Emuisum Amygdalae, Bismut...
-Remedial Measures Other Than Drugs
The application of cold is used to modify congestion. It has a double action: (1) the abstraction of heat, and (2) a reflex counterirritancy. It is indicated in localized inflammations, and in high fe...
-Pharmacodynamics According To The Several Systems
Central Nervous System. Cerebrum. Stimulation. Depression. Caffeine Alcohol (Cannabis) Cannabis...
-Equivalents Of Measures Of Length. Metric And Linear Measure
Centimeters. Inches. 150 59.06 145 57.09 140 55.12 139.7 ...







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