Aconine, C26H41O11. - This appears antagonistic to aconitine in cardiac effect; picraconitine is considered inert; aconitic acid is abundant, but is chiefly in combination with calcium, and is almost inert.

Preparations. - 1. Extraction Aconiti. Extract of Aconite. (Syn., Ext. Aconit., Powdered Extract of Aconite, Extract of Aconite Root; Fr. Extrait de Racine d'Aconit; Ger. Eisenhutknollenextrakt.)

Manufacture: Moisten 100 Gm. with alcohol 50 Ml. (Cc.) + tartaric acid .5 Gm., + alcohol enough to saturate and cover; macerate, percolate until exhausted, reserve first 100 Ml. (Cc.), and reclaim alcohol from second percolate until residue in still is 10 Ml. (Cc.), to which add first reserve and distil until residue of syrupy consistence; transfer to a flask, rinse still with little warm alcohol, which add to flask, cool, shake thoroughly twice with purified petroleum benzin

25 Ml. (Cc.), discard benzin layers; transfer syrupy residue to a dish, rinse flask with warm alcohol 2 Ml. (Cc.), which add to dish, thoroughly incorporate dried starch 5 Gm., evaporate on water-bath, frequently stirring, and when thick spread on glass plates, dry in air-bath at 70° C. (158° F.); pulverize; after assay add enough dried starch for extract to contain 2 p. c of ether-soluble alkaloids; mix thoroughly, pass through fine sieve; contains 1.8-2.2 - 2 p. c. of ether-soluble alkaloids. Should be kept in small, wide-mouthed, tightly-stoppered bottles. Dose, gr. 1/6-1/3 (.01-.02 Gm.).

2. Fluidextractum Aconiti. Fluidextract of Aconite. (Syn., Fldext. Aconit., Fluid Extract of Aconite; Fr. Extrait fluide (de Racine) d'Aconit; Ger. Akonitknollenfluidextrakt.)

Manufacture: Divide 100 Gm. into 3 parts (50, 30, 20), macerate, percolate part 1 (50) with 75 p. c. alcohol, reserve first 20 Ml. (Cc.), continue to 150 Ml. (Cc.), collected in 5 equal portions; with 1st of these moisten part 2 (30), macerate, percolate with remaining 4 portions successively, and, if insufficient, use some original menstruum; reserve first 30 Ml. (Cc.), continue to 80 Ml. (Cc.), collected in 4 equal portions; with 1st of these moisten part 3 (20), macerate, percolate with remaining 3 portions successively, and, if insufficient, use some original menstruum, collect 42 Ml. (Cc.) of percolate, mix with 2 reserved portions; after assay add enough menstruum for the 100 Ml. (Cc.) to contain .45-.55 - .5 Gm. of ether-soluble alkaloids. Dose, ss-2 (.03-.13 Ml. (Cc.)).

3. Tinctura Aconiti. Tincture of Aconite. (Syn., Tr. Aconit.; Fr. Teinture de Racine d'Aconit; Ger. Akonittinktur, Eisenhuttinktur.)

Manufacture: 10 p. c Similar to Tinctura Veratri Viridis, page 101; menstruum: 70 p. c alcohol - percolate 95 Ml. (Cc.), assay, and add enough menstruum for the 100 Ml. (Cc.) to contain .045-055 - .05 Gm. of ether-soluble alkaloids; this is considered the best preparation for internal use. Dose, ss-10 (.03-.6 Ml. (Cc.)).

Unoff. Preps.: Abstract (alcohol), dose, gr. 1/4-1 (.016-.06 Gm.). Extract (alcohol), dose, gr. 1/6-1/3 (.01-.02 Gm.). Fleming's Tincture Aconite Root, 70 p. c (alcohol), dose, ss-4 (.03-.26 Ml. (Cc.)). Liniment of Aconite and Chloroform, 4.5 p. c. (fldext.), chloroform 12.5, alcohol 8, soap liniment 75. Linimentum Aconiti (Br.), 50 Gm. + camphor 3 Gm., alcohol q. s. 100 Ml. (Cc.). Oleate of Aconitine, 2 p. c Tincture Aconite Leaves, 8 p. c (diluted alcohol), dose, j-6 (.06-.4 Ml. (Cc.)). Unguentum Aconitinae (Br.), 2 p. c Glycerite. Plaster.

Pseudaconitine (A. ferox), dose, gr. 1/250-1/100

(.00026-.00065 Gm.).

Properties. - Sedative (heart and nerve), anodyne, diaphoretic, antipyretic, myotic, poisonous. Produces tingling and numbness of the lips, mouth, and fingers; increases the secretion of the kidneys, salivary glands, and skin; circulation (heart action, pulse) becomes weak and slow, due to direct depression of heart-muscle, and stimulation of pneumogastric nerve; respiration (breathing) shallow and slow; temperature is lowered, all causing a tendency to fainting when in the erect position, and giving rise to its popular name "therapeutic lancet;" it paralyzes first the sensory and then the motor nerves.

Uses. It should never be given in asthenic or debilitated conditions, or when the heart action is weak, or in gastric catarrh, but mag be employed in all sthenic or inflammatory fevers of the young and vigorous; croup, laryngitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, acute meningitis, peritonitis, pleuritis, rheumatism; measles, scarlet fever, erysipelas, first stage of pneumonia, pericarditis and pleurisy, nervous heart palpitation, cardiac hypertrophy. Locally on non-abraded surfaces; neuralgia, rheumatism, sciatica, herpes zoster, chilblains, pruritus, odontalgia, periodontitis, inflamed pulps.

Poisoning: Have anxious countenance, pallid, clammy skin covered with cold sweat; pulse and respiration slow, weak, and irregular; muscular weakness, loss of sight and hearing, pupils either normal, contracted or dilated, general anaesthesia, collapse, death from syncope, or respiratory paralysis, sometimes preceded by convulsions; conscious until near the end, when carbon dioxide narcosis sets in. Evacuate stomach reclining, direct recumbent position, feet elevated, warmth to extremities, give diffusible cardiac stimulants (brandy, whisky, alcohol, ether, ammonia) by the stomach, rectum, or skin, then digitalis, tannin; artificial heat and respiration (rhythmically raising and lowering arms from straight at sides to up over head and back again 20 times per minute), amyl nitrite, atropine, and strychnine (hypodermically) to stimulate heart and respiration.

Incompatibles: Ammonia, alcohol, alkalies, atropine, digitalis, ether, morphine, heat, turpentine.

Synergists: Veratrum viride, Pulsatilla, staphisagria, cold, fatigue.

Leaves, official 1820-1880. These are considered 5-20 times weaker than the root, yet many specimens yield considerable alkaloids; their uncertainty and deception have led to disuse; but if collected when flowers are two-thirds in bloom they are reliable; it is then that all nutrient constituents are in demand for the perfection of reproductive organs, thus leaving behind in the leaves a goodly quantity of the (waste products) alkaloids. Dose, gr. 1-4 (.06-.26 Gm.).

Allied Plants: