Fig. 42. - Allium sativum.
Perryi, Baker, vera, (Lrinne) Webb, ferox, Miller.
The inspissated juice of the leaves.
Habitat. 1. E. Africa, Island of Socotra; cultivated. 2. W. Indies (N. E. Africa, India): cultivated in Curacao, Aruba, Bonaire, Italy, Sicily, Malta, naturalized in Barbados Island, etc. 3. Cape of Good Hope (S. Africa).
Syn. 1. Aloe Socotrina, Socotrine (sucvs citrinus)-, Bombay-, Mocha-, Turkey-, Zanzibar-Aloes; Fr. Aloes; Ger. Aloe, Aloe, Socotra Aloe, Socotrinische Aloe. 2. Aloe Barbadensis, Barbados-, Curacao-, East Indian-, India-, Bitter-, Hepatic-, Horse-Aloes; Fr. Aloes hepatique des Barbades, ou de la Jamaique; Ger. Barbados Aloe. 3. Aloe Capensis, Aloe lucida, Shining (Glassy) Aloes; Fr. Aloes du Cap; Ger. Kapaloe.
Al'o-e. L. fr. Ar. Alloeh, Gr.
native names for the aloe.
Per'ry-i. L. after Wykeham Perry, who studied the plant natively. Ve'ra. L. verus, true - i. e., the original and true primitive kind. Fer'ox. L. fr. ferox or ferus, fierce, coarse, wild - i. e., large plant with leaves prickly on surface as well as margins.
Plants. - Perennials; stems 1.5 M. (5°) high, woody, rough from leaf-remnants; leaves glaucous-green, often with darker spots, thick, succulent, bayonet-shaped, margin with reddish spines or serratures; flowers racemose or spicate, tubular, yellowish, orange-red; stamens 6, unequal, 3 longer than corolla. Inspissated juice (aloes - A. Perryi): Socotrine, blackish-brown, opaque, or smooth glistening masses, fracture conchoidal, sometimes soft; odor aromatic, saffron-like, never fetid, putrid; taste nauseous, bitter; 50 p. c. soluble in cold water
Fig. 43. - Aloe Perryi.
Fig. 44. - Aloe vera (vulgaris).
(yellow); with nitric acid - yellowish, reddish-brown solution; (A. vera): Curacao, blackish-brown, opaque masses, fracture uneven, waxy, resinous; odor characteristic, not aromatic; 60 p. c. soluble in cold water (purplish-red); with nitric acid - deep red solution; (A. ferox): Cape, reddish-brown, olive-black masses, usually covered with yellowish powder, in thin transparent, reddish-brown fragments, fracture smooth, glassy; odor characteristic; 60 p. c. soluble in cold water (pale yellow); with nitric acid - reddish-brown solution, changing to purplish-brown, greenish. Powder, (1) dark brown, (2) reddish-brown, (3) greenish-yellow, brown by age; microscopically (in almond oil) - (1) yellowish, reddish-brown irregular, angular fragments, (2) reddish-brown irregular, angular more or less opaque fragments, (3) bright yellow angular fragments. Tests: 1. Heat gently 1 Gm. with alcohol 50 Ml. (Cc.), cool - nearly clear solution (abs. of gum., inorganic substances); evaporate - moisture 10 p. c. 2. Mix 1 Gm. with hot water 10 Ml. (Cc.); of this take 1 Ml. (Cc.), + water (100), + aqueous solution of sodium borate (1 in 20) - green fluorescence; of this take 1 Ml. (Cc.), + water (100), + benzene (10), shake, separate benzene solution, + ammonia water (5) - permanent deep rose color in lower layer. Solvents: alcohol; boiling water; cold water (4); not affected by ether, chloroform. Dose, gr. 1/2 - 10 (.03-6 Gm.).
Adulterations. - Aloes: Chiefly dried juice of inferior allied species, small amount of leaves, wood, sticks, stones, leather, monkey and goat skins, implements, knives, nails, iron, resin, pitch, ochre, burned bones, gum, licorice, etc. - 5-27 p. c, increasing ash to 26.5 p. c. Aloin: Resinous and other matter, recognized by imperfect solubility in water.
Commercial. - Plants resemble to some extent Aga've america'na, American Aloe or century plant, and were known to Dioscorides and Celsus. The large, thick leaves have a central insipid, thick, mucilaginous juice as well as a peripheral bitter, watery, colorless juice (aloetic) in distinct, elongated, thin-walled ducts, which varies in activity with age of leaf and season of year. This superficial juice - possibly a plant protection - is collected when not too scanty or watery, March-April, just after the rainy season, by cutting off the leaves near their base, during sunshine, and standing them up for half an hour in skins depressed in the ground, or in a series of 5 V-shaped wooden troughs (1.2 M.; 4° long - .3-5 M.; 12-18' deep), each with an opening in the lower inclined end to run off juice as it exudes by gravity alone (any pressure serving to expel also the undesirable central juice, possessing emmenagogue properties and suitable for poultices) into iron or copper vessels for evaporation, which continues 5 hours, occasionally ladling out the impurities. The colorless juice on exposure soon becomes yellowish-brown, but may be kept in barrels for months, as it does not spoil, and according to demand reduced slowly by sun (socotrine) or rapidly by fire (curacao, cape), thus imparting a heavier odor without injuring medicinal properties. In Curacao immediate evaporation, below the boiling point, yields a variety called "Capey," from its lustre and yellowish powder, but if evaporation is deferred a year the surface is dull, odor suggestive of fermentation; powder brownish, and less soluble in water (4-13 p. c). When of proper consistence the evaporated product - commercial aloes - is poured into tin-lined boxes, kegs, casks, tubs, monkey or goat skins and sent via Zanzibar to Bombay (socotrine), or into gourds (2-15-50 pounds; 1-7-23 Kg.), boxes (60-100 pounds; 27-46 Kg.), small calabashes and shipped from Curacao, Bonaire, Jamaica, Barbadoes (curacao), or into boxes, cases, skins, and shipped from Algoa Bay, Cape Town, Mossel Bay (cape). There are three varieties: 1, Socotrine (A. Perryi), most expensive, highly esteemed and flavored - the best; 2, Curacao (Barbadoes - A. vera (vulgaris)), mostly used, and commands a higher price upon keeping; 3, Cape (A. ferox), production equals all other varieties combined; not used much in this country, but largely in Germany, S. Europe.
Constituents. - Aloin, Resin 30-50 p. c., Emodin (Cape and Bar-badoes) .15-2 p. c., volatile oil (to which disagreeable odor is due) .0015 p. c, moisture 5-10 p. c., ash 1-4 p. c.
Aloinum. Aloin, official. - A pentoside or mixture of pentosides from aloes, varying in chemical composition, physical and chemical properties according to source. Obtained chiefly by dissolving Curacao aloes (1) in boiling acidulated, HC1 or H2SO4, water (10), letting stand 24 hours for resin to deposit, decanting, evaporating to 2 parts, setting aside 2 weeks to crystallize - yield 20-25 p. c. It is a micro-crystalline powder, minute acicular crystals, lemon-yellow, darker on exposure, odorless, slight odor of aloes, intensely bitter taste; varies in solubility with its composition - soluble in water, alcohol, acetone, slightly in ether. Tests: 1. Aqueous solution - yellow, brown on standing neutral, faintly acid. 2. Dissolves in alkaline hydroxide solutions - red, yellow becoming red, green fluorescence. 3. Decomposes when added to alkaline or acid solutions; alcoholic solution + a drop of ferric chloride T. S. - brownish-green; incinerate .5 Gm. - ash .5 p. c; insoluble residue in water dried - 1.5 p. c. 4. Shake 1 Gm. + benzene 10 Ml. (Cc.) - filtrate imparts faint pink color to equal volume of 5 p. c. ammonia water (lim. of emodin). Curacao-aloin, C17H20O7, identical with barb-aloin, ugand-aloin, cap-aloin, when boiled with nitric acid - chrysammic acid, crimson color; soc-aloin, C15H16O7, with nitric acid - no color change; nat-aloin dissolved in sulphuric acid in proximity to glass rod dipped into nitric acid - solution green, blue, violet, orange-red - but no effect on the two preceding. Twice as active as aloes and usually produces no griping. Dose, gr. 1/2-2 (.03-..13 Gm.).
Resin. - Obtained by allowing a dilute aloetic infusion to cool, when it precipitates, filtering, drying. Like aloin, varies according to source, the several kinds being esters of various acids (cinnamic, paracumaric, etc.) with aloresino-tannol; soluble in hot water (thus differing from other resins), alcohol, ether, alkaline solutions, brownish-black by ferric salts; equally active as the drug, due possibly to accidental presence of aloin.
Emodin (Aloe-emodin). - Believed to be in Cape and Barbadoes, but not in Natal or Socotrine, and is obtained by dissolving it in ether from aloin, of which, as well as of aloes, it is the purgative principle. In aloin, just as in anthraglucosennin, rhein, frangulin, and purshianin, the alkaline secretions of the upper intestine must produce decomposition, whereby the emodin thus set free may produce peristalsis, hence the cathartic action of the drug.
Preparations. - 1. Pilulae Aloes. Pills of Aloes. (Syn., Pil. Aloes; Br. Pilula Aloes, Aloes Pill; Fr. Pilules d'Aloes et de Savon; Ger. Aloepillen.)
Manufacture: Mix aloes 13 Gm., soap 13 Gm., water q. s. 100 pills. Dose, 1-4 pills.
2. Tinctura Aloes. Tincture of Aloes. (Syn., Tr. Aloes; Fr. Teinture d'Aloes; Ger. Aloetinktur.)
Manufacture: 10 p. c. Macerate aloes 10 Gm., glycyrrhiza 20 Gin-with diluted alcohol 75 Ml. (Cc.), in a stoppered container in a moderately warm place until exhausted (3 days), frequently agitating, drain on filter, wash residue with diluted alcohol q. s. 100 Ml. (Cc.). Dose, 3ss-2(2-8 Ml. (Cc.)).
3. Extractum Colocynthidis Compositum, 50 p. c. 4. Pilulae Rhei Compositae, 1 1/2 gr. (.1 Gm.). 5. Tinctura Benzoini Composita, 2 p. c.
Unoff. Preps.: Decoctum Aloes Compositum (Br. - 1 p. c. of extract). Extract, dose, gr. 1/2-5 (.03-.3 Gm.). Pills of Aloes and Iron, 1 gr. (.06 Gm.). Pills of Aloes and Mastic, gr. 2 (.13 Gm.). Pills of Aloes and Myrrh, gr. 2 (.13 Gm.). Pills of Aloin, Belladonna, and Strychnine (Compound Laxative Pills - aloin 1/5 gr. (.013 Gm.). Pills of Aloin Comp., 1/2 gr. (.03 Gm.). Powder of Aloes and Canella, Hiera Picra, 80 p. c, + canella 20 p. c., dose gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.). Tincture Aloes and Myrrh, 10 p. c, dose, 3ss-2 (2-8 Ml. (Cc.)). Wine.
Properties. - Cathartic, drastic, emmenagogue, vermifuge, stomachic. The action is especially on the colon and lower half of the large intestine, and thus causes irritation to uterus and inflamed hemorrhoids; stimulates the functions of the liver, intestinal secretions generally, increases the flow of bile, and acts in about 15 hours. Abnormal doses do not produce proportionately excessive results, but invariably cause tormina, tenesmus with heat, and rectal irritation - the latter (stomach and rectum) being remedied largely by combining with soap or an alkaline carbonate.
Uses. - Costiveness (dependent upon weakness of muscular layer of the large intestine), atonic dyspepsia, jaundice, non-active hemorrhoids, amenorrhoea, ascarides; for the two last may give by enema.
Poisoning: Have irritation of intestinal canal, causing pain, vomiting, and purging, cold sweats, prostration, sometimes convulsions, collapse. Empty stomach, give demulcents, opium, stimulants, artificial heat to body and extremities, hot fomentations to abdomen.