Pimpinella Anisum,

Linne.

The dried ripe fruit with not more than 3 p. c. of foreign seeds, other vegetable matter.

Habitat. W. Asia, Egypt, S. E. Europe; cultivated in S. Europe, United States, in gardens.

Syn. Anis., Aniseed, Aneys, Aunyle, Common Anise, Sweet Cumin, Semen Anisi; Br. Anisi Fructus; Fr. Anis, Anis vert, Graines d'Anise; Ger. Anis, Anissame.

Pim-pi-nel'la. L. Medieval name, altered, from bipinnate or bipinnella - i. e., the pinnate leaves; lit. "the two-winged little plant."

An'i-sum. L. fr. Gr.

Anisum Anise 597

Ar, anisum, anise, dill - i. e., classic name.

Plant. - Annual herb .3 M. (1°) high; dentate, pinnatifid; flowers white, small, umbels 8-14-rayed. Fruit, cremocarp, ovoid, pyriform compressed, grayish-green, slightly pubescent, 3-6 Mm. (1/8-1/4') long, 2-3 Mm. (1/12-1/8') broad; mericarps 2, usually cohering and attached to slender pedicel 2-12 Mm. (1/12-1/12') long with 5 filiform ridges and 15-45 vittae, summit with ring-like disk and 2 projecting styles; odor and taste agreeable, aromatic. Powder, yellowish-brown; microscopically - fragments of pericarp with vittae, tracheae, sclerenchyma-tous fibres of carpophore, cells of endosperm filled with aleurone grains, each usually enclosing a rosette aggregate crystal of calcium oxalate, 1-celled non-glandular hairs. Tests: 1. Heat 1 Gm. with potassium hydroxide T. S. (10) - no mouse-like odor (abs. of conium). 2. Incinerate - ash 9 p. c. Solvents: alcohol; boiling water partially. Dose, gr. 10-30 (.6-2 Gm.).

Adulterations. - Fruit: Earthy fragments, partly exhausted fruits, recognized by shriveled appearance, chiefly, however, with conium fruit (which resembles mostly the Russian anise), but odor and taste not aromatic - becoming mouse-like with solution potassium hydroxide even when 1 p. c. present; non-hairy; consisting usually of single smooth mericarps, grooved upon the face, 5-crenate ribs (ridges) with wrinkles between them, no vittae; Powder: Star-anise recognized by its peculiar sclerotic cells, earthy matter sinking when stirred in strong brine; Oil: Spermaceti 5-35 p. c, wax, petroleum, fixed oils, oils of turpentine and fennel, camphor (to raise congealing-point), alcohol, fenchone (fennel stearoptene); the two first insoluble in cold alcohol, whereas oils and camphor are mostly soluble; camphors recognized - by odor; alcohol - by milkiness to water; star-anise oil is the same chemically, but has a slight distinguishing smell and taste, also lower congealing-point (1°C.;34°F.).

Commercial. - Plant was known and cultivated by the Romans, while Theophrastus wrote of its aromatic properties; now grown

Fig. 285.   Anisum: fruit and longitudinal section magnified 3 diam.; transverse section magnified 8 diam.

Fig. 285. - Anisum: fruit and longitudinal section magnified 3 diam.; transverse section magnified 8 diam.

mostly in Malta, Spain, Italy, S. Russia, Greece, Chile. There are four varieties: 1, Spanish (Alicante), small, best, preferred; 2, German (French), larger; 3, Italian, exported via Leghorn; 4, Russian, very short, resembling conium most; that cultivated at home supplies largely our market.

Constituents. - Volatile oil (anethol) 1-3 p. c, fixed oil 3-4 p. c, choline, resin, sugar, mucilage, malates, phosphates, ash 7 p. c.

Oleum Anisi. Oil of Anise. Oil of Star Anise, official. - (Syn., 01. Anisi, Anise Oil; Fr. Essence d'Anis; Ger. Anisol, Anethol.) This volatile oil, obtained by distilling the ripe fruit of anise or star anise (lllicunn vemm), is a colorless, pale yellow, strongly refractive liquid, characteristic odor and taste of anise, soluble with not more than slight cloudiness in 3 vols. of 90 p. c. alcohol; sp. gr. 0.983, increasing with age; contains a liquid body - terpenes and methyl-chavicol, C10H12O, and a stearoptene, anethol, C10H12O, 80-90 p. c, upon which the value depends, being converted by exposure or oxidation with nitric acid into anisic acid; star anise oil is the same chemically, containing anethol 80-90 p. c, d-pinene, d-phellandrene, and possibly safrol, but congeals at 1° C. (34° F.), while anise oil at 10-15° C. (50-59° F.). Tests: 1. Laevorotatory (abs. of oils of fennel, caraway, coriander - dextrorotatory). 2. Shake with water in graduated tube - volume should not diminish; drop into water - no milkiness unless agitated (abs. of alcohol). 3. Alcoholic solution neutral; with a drop of ferric chloride T. S. - no blue or brown color (abs.- of phenols). Impurities: Heavy metals, oil of fennel, phenols. The label must indicate definitely its specific source, and if solid material has separated, carefully warm the oil until liquefied and thoroughly mix before dispensing. Should be kept dark, in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles. Dose, eij-5 (.13-.3 Ml. (Cc.)).

Anethol. - The methyl ether of para-propenyl phenol obtained from this and other oils by fractioning, chilling, crystallizing; practically identical with the oil.

Preparations. - Oil: 1. Aqua Anisi. Anise Water. (Syn., Aq. Anisi; Fr. Eau d'Anis; Ger. Aniswasser.)

Manufacture: 1/5 p. c. Similar to Aquae Aromaticse - triturate oil .2 Ml. (Cc.) with purified talc 1.5 Gm., adding gradually recently boiled distilled water q. s. 100 Ml. (Cc). Dose. 3ij-8 (8-30 Ml. (Cc.)).

2. Spiritus Anisi. Spirit of Anise. (Syn., Sp. Anisi, Essentia Anisi; Fr. Alcoolat (Esprit) d'Anis; Ger. Anisgeist.)

Manufacture: 10 p. c. Dissolve oil 10 Ml. (Cc.) in alcohol q. s. 100 Ml. (Cc). Dose, 3j-2 (4-8 Ml. (Cc.)).

3. Fluidextractum Cascaroe Sagradoe Aromaticum, 1/4 p. c 4. Spiritus Aurantii Compositus, 1/2 p. c 5. Syrupus Sarsaparilloe Compositus, 1/50 p. c. 6. Tinctura Opii Camphorata, 2/5 p. c

Unoff. Preps.: Fruit: Fluidextract, dose, ex-30 (.6-2 Ml. (Cc)). Infusion, 5 p. c, dose, 3 j-8 (4-30 Ml. (Cc.)). Anethol (Oil) : Elixir Anisi, .35 p. c + oil of fennel .05, spirit of bitter almond 1.2, alcohol 28

24, syrup 62.5, purified talc 2, distilled water q. s. 100. Dose, exv-30 (1-2 Ml. (Cc.)).

Properties. - Aromatic stimulant and carminative, stomachic, once supposed a galactagogue, now doubted, although it does impart peculiar taste to secreting milk.

Uses. - Flatulent colic, bronchitis, infantile catarrh. As a corri-gent to griping cathartics, but here fennel is preferred; much used for flavoring food, confectionery, and in veterinary practice.

Allied Plants:

1. Pimpinella Saxif'raga and S. mag'na; dried rhizome and roots; light yellowish-brown, aromatic, sweetish, pungent; composition, properties and uses similar to anise. Dose, gr. 10-30 (.6-1 Gm.); tincture (67 p. c. alcohol) 20 p. c.

2. Ane'thum (Peuced'anum) grave'olens, Bill Fruit, Dill Seed, (Br.). - S. Europe, Asia. Herb .6 M. (2°) high; leaves finely divided, glaucous; flowers yellow; fruit oblong, 4 Mm. (1/6') long, brown, smooth, mericarps 2, flat-faced, each having 5 ribs, 6 vittae, of which 3 are filiform, 2 lateral ones broadly winged, light colored, odor, and taste spicy, caraway-like; contains volatile oil 3-4 p. c, fixed oil. Used as carminative, stimulant, stomachic, condiment, flavoring; as a substitute for anise and caraway in flatulent colic, hiccough, indigestion. Dose, gr. 10-30 (.6-2 Gm.); volatile oil (oleum anethi, Br.), eij-5 (.13-.3M1. (Cc.)); aqua anethi (Br.), 10 p. c, ℥ss-2 (15-60ML (Cc.)).