The element antimony (Gr.

Antimonium Antimony Stibium Sbiii V 120 2 920

against, + moine. monk - monk'sbane, poisons monks; or Gr.

Antimonium Antimony Stibium Sbiii V 120 2 921

against, +

Antimonium Antimony Stibium Sbiii V 120 2 922

alone - never found alone; or Gr.

Antimonium Antimony Stibium Sbiii V 120 2 923

instead of, + L. minium, red lead - women once used it instead of red lead tor painting around the eyes; L. stibium,


Antimonium Antimony Stibium Sbiii V 120 2 924

name of sulphide of antimony), official 1830-1840, has several official compounds, and occurs natively uncombined, also as oxide, oxysulphide, and mostly as sulphide. From this latter the metal is obtained by roasting it into an oxide, then reducing that with charcoal. It is brittle, bluish-white like silver, crystalline structure, sp. gr. 0.7; forms antimonous and antimonic compounds.

Tests for Antimony Salts: 1. H2S in acid solution precipitates orange-red antimonous or antimonic sulphide, Sb2S3 or Sb2S5, soluble in ammonia water. 2. The sulphide dissolved in HC1 and thrown into water precipitates white oxychloride. 3. Zinc and iron precipitate antimony as black powder from its solutions, while copper precipitates it as a black metallic film upon itself, which when heated volatilizes the antimony, depositing it as antimonous oxide. 4. Marsh's test; here brown rings are produced on porcelain, as in arsenic, which are insoluble in solution of chlorinated lime (bleaching-powder).

Antimonii et Potassii Tartras. Antimony and Potassium Tartrate, K(SbO)C4H4O6 + 1/2H2O. - (Syn., Antim. et Pot. Tart., Antimonyl Potassium Tartrate, Tartrated Antimony, Tartar Emetic; Antimonium Tartarisatum, Tartarus Emeticus, Stibio-kali Tartaricum; Br. Antimonium Tartaratum, Tartarated Antimony; Fr. Tartrate d'Antimoine et de Potasse, Emetique, Tartre stibie; Ger. Tartarus stibiatus, Brechweinstein.)

Manufacture: Antimony oxide 150 Gm. + potassium bitartrate 180 Gm. + water 1.000 Ml. (Cc), boil 1 hour, crystallize - Sb2O3 + 2KHC4H4O6 = 2K(SbO)C4H4O6,H2O. It is in colorless, transparent, rhombic crystals (efflorescing on exposure), white granular powder, odorless, sweet disagreeable metallic taste; soluble in water (12), boiling water (3), glycerin (15), insoluble in alcohol; aqueous solution slightly acid; contains 98.5 p. c. of pure salt. Tests: 1. Heated to redness - chars, odor of burning sugar, blackened alkaline residue imparting violet flame. 2. Aqueous solution + few drops of hydrochloric acid + hydrogen sulphide T. S. - orange-red precipitate, soluble in ammonium sulphide T. S. or potassium hydroxide T. S. Impurities: Iron, arsenic. Should be kept in well-closed containers. Dose, alterative, gr. 1/32-1/16 (.002-.004 Gm.); diaphoretic, expectorant, gr. 1/12-1/6 (.005-.01 Gm.); nauseating sudorific, gr. 1/6-1/4 (.01-.016 Gm.), every few hours; emetic, gr. 1/2 (.03 Gm.), repeated every 20 minutes with warm water or chamomile tea until vomiting occurs.

Preparations. - 1. Mistura Glycyrrhizae Composita, 1/42 p. c. 2. Syrupus Sdllas Compositus, 1/5 p. c.

Unoff. Preps.: Vinum Antimonii: antimony and potassium tartrate .4 Gm., boiling distilled water 2.5 Ml. (Cc), sherry wine q. s. 100 Ml. (Cc), Dose, ex-30 (.6-2 Ml. (Cc)), repeated as desired; as emetic for children, 3ss-l (2-4 Ml. (Cc)), repeated every 15 minutes until vomiting occurs.

Properties and Uses. - Sedative, diaphoretic, expectorant, antiphlogistic, emetic, febrile complaints, first stage of bronchitis, pneumonia, pleurisy, acute rheumatism, tonsillitis, mammary abscess, hernia humoralis, ophthalmia, mumps, skin affections (eczema, urticaria, psoriasis), dropsy, salivation, meningitis, epilepsy, chorea, mania, convulsions, mania-a-potu, rigid os uteri, strangulated hernia, dislocations, naevi, varicose veins. Externally - applied in strong solution or ointment causes pustular eruptions like those of smallpox, producing scabs and indelible scars. Antimony Wine - a good form for diaphoresis in fever crisis, febrifuge, expectorant.

Poisoning: Symptoms similar to arsenic, but less marked; have metallic taste, abdominal pain, incessant, retching, precordial cramps, burning heat, distended epigastrium, colic, frequent watery stools, dry throat, salivation, difficult deglutition, skin cool, clammy, muscles relaxed, pulse feeble, thready, respiration slow, scanty bloody urine, death may be preceded by stupor, mild delirium, or convulsions. Place in horizontal position, lower head, wash out stomach with solution of tannic acid, green tea, or galls, then demulcent drinks, egg-white, milk, warmth, friction, electricity, opium, stimulants; tartar emetic gr. 2-5 (.13 - .3 Gm.) have killed.

Incompatibles: Opium, alcohol, cardiac stimulants, antispasmodics, tannin, gallic acid, lead salts.

Synergists: Emetics, cathartics, cardiac depressants.

Allied Salts:

1. Antimonii Sulphidum. Antimony Sulphide, Sb2S3, official 1820-1900. - This is native antimony sulphide purified by fusion and as free from arsenic as possible; the grayish-black ore, stibnite (Europe, United States), containing galena, iron pyrites, quartz, and heavy spar, is heated in pots, whereby fusible antimony sulphide runs off into earthen vessels to cool. It is in steel-gray masses, metallic lustre, striated, crystalline fracture, forming grayish-black lustreless powder, odorless, tasteless, permanent, soluble in HO, insoluble in water, alcohol. Dose, freely in veterinary practice.

2. Antimonii Sulphidum Purificatum. Purified Antimony Sulphide, Sb2S3, official 1820-1900. - Obtained by taking finely powdered antimony sulphide 100 Gm., removing coarser particles by elutriation, and macerating for 5 days the fine subsiding sulphide in ammonia water 50 Ml. (Cc.), agitating frequently to remove any arsenic present, then washing with water and drying. It is a heavy, blackish, lustreless powder, odorless, tasteless, permanent, insoluble in water, alcohol, soluble in HC1 with evolution of hydrogen sulphide. Impurities: Arsenic, etc. Used only for pharmaceutical purposes, not prescribed internally to any extent. Dose, gr. 10-30 (.6-2 Gm.), in powder or bolus.

3. Antimonium Sulphuratum. Sidphurated Antimony, Kermes Mineral chiefly Sb2S3, official 1820-1900. - Obtained by boiling 2 hours purified antimony sulphide 100 Gm., solution sodium hydroxide 1200 Ml. (Cc), distilled water 3000 Ml. (Cc), stirring frequently, and adding water to preserve volume, strain, drop into it, while hot, diluted sulphuric acid q. s. to precipitate completely, wash precipitate with hot distilled water, dry, pulverize. It is an amorphous, reddish-brown powder, odorless, tasteless, losing color on exposure, insoluble in water, alcohol. Impurities: Calcium, chloride, sulphate. Alterative, diaphoretic, emetic, but an uncertain medicine. Dose, alterative, gr. 1-2 (.06-13 Gm.), twice daily, in pill; emetic, gr. 5-20 (.3-1.3 Gra.). Plummer's Pills (Pilulae Antimonii Compositae, U. S. P. 1890), 3/5 gr. (.036 Gm.), + mild mercurous chloride 3/5, guaiac 1 1/5, castor oil q. s.; used in secondary syphilis, skin eruptions, and while taking should avoid acids. Dose, 1-3 pills.

4. Antimonii Oxidum. Antimony Oxide, Sb2O3, official 1820-1900. - Obtained by pouring a solution of antimony chloride into water, thus precipitating the oxychloride, which is to be decomposed by sodium carbonate. It is a heavy, grayish-white powder, odorless, tasteless, permanent, nearly insoluble in water, alcohol, ether, nitric acid, soluble in hydrochloric acid, hot aqueous solutions of tartaric acid or potassium bitartrate. Impurities: Iron, copper, lead, arsenic, chloride, sulphate. Seldom used in medicine, although possessing antimonial properties; owing to its limited solubility does not nauseate or vomit very much; constitutes 33 p. c. (+ precipitated calcium phosphate 67) of James' Powder (Pulvis Antimonialis, U. S. P. 1890), used as a diaphoretic in febrile conditions. Dose, gr. 2-4 (.13-.26 Gm.).