3. Arc'Tium Lap'Pa, Burdock, Clotbur

Arc'Tium Lap'Pa, Burdock, Clotbur. The dried root, collected from plants of the first year's growth, official 1830-1910; Europe, N. Asia, nat. in N. America, waste places. Coarse biennial weed, .6-2 M. (2-0°) high, branched; leaves cordate-oblong, dentate, rough, petiolate; flowers purple, calyx being imbricated scales with hooked extremities by which they adhere to objects; achenes oblong, compressed, 3-angled, ribbed; seeds quadrangular; var. ma'jor (ma'jus),

Fig. 431.   Arctium Lappa.

Fig. 431. - Arctium Lappa.

Fig. 432.   Lappa: transverse section, magnified 2 diam.

Fig. 432. - Lappa: transverse section, magnified 2 diam.

heads large, 2.5 Cm. (1') broad, smoothish involucre; var. tomen-to'sum, involucre and peduncles woolly; var. mi'nor (mi'nus), heads small, involucre at first cottony, finally smooth, leaves unequally rounded at base. Root, .25-.8 M. (10-30') long, 5-20 Mm. (1/5-4/5') thick, nearly simple, fusiform, frequently split, or in broken pieces, grayish-brown, longitudinally wrinkled, crown annulate, sometimes surrounded by a woolly tuft of leaf remains, fracture somewhat horny, dark cambium separating the thick brownish bark from porous radiate wood, centrally hollow or containing white pith-like tissue; odor slight; taste mucilaginous, sweetish, slightly bitter; solvents: diluted alcohol, boiling water partially; contains inulin, bitter extractive, resin, fat 9 p. c., mucilage, sugar, wax, tannin (phlobaphene), lappin, ash 3-4 p. c. Diaphoretic, diuretic, alterative, aperient, depurative; rheumatism, gout, pulmonary catarrh, psoriasis, acne, syphilis, scrofula, urinary deposits; burns, wounds, eruptions, swellings. Dose, 3ss-2

(2-8 Gm.); fluidextract, 3ss-2 (2-S Ml. (Cc.)); tincture, 10 p. c. (diluted alcohol, whisky), 3ij-3 (8-12 Ml. (Cc.)), after meals. Fructus Lappoe, Semen Bardanoe; seed, official 1830-1840; about 6 Mm. (J') long, obovate-oblong, slightly curved, angular, flattened, roughish, brown-gray, mottled with black; inodorous; taste oily, bitter; contains drying oil 15.4 p. c, resins 5.5 p. c, lappin; tincture 25 p. c. (alcohol 75 p. a), dose, 3ss-2 (2-8 Ml. (Cc.)); fluidextract, exv-30 (1-2 Ml. (Cc), tonic); 3ss-l (2-4 Ml. (Cc.), alterative). Fructus Silybi (Sil'ybum Maria'num), Mary Thistle; S. Europe; achenes 5 Mm. (1/5') long, not curved, obovate, flattened, smooth, glossy, light brown, with blackish striae, brownish; taste oily, bitter. Bidens bipinna'ta, Spanish Needles, Beggar-lice; stem square, achenes triangular, barbed; stimulant, aromatic (vol. oil), antispasmodic, expectorant, diaphoretic; hay fever, amenorrhoea (hot infusion), asthma, bronchitis. Rudbeck'ia hir'ta, Yellow Daisy, Black-eyed Susan, Nigger-head; stimulating diuretic (Eclectic's).

Fig. 433.   Carthamus tinctorius.

Fig. 433. - Carthamus tinctorius.