Xan'Thium Struma'Rium, Broad Cocklebur. Ambrosiaceae, N. America; achenes 2.5 Cm. (1') long, flat, oblong, without pappus, enclosed in the involucre, which is densely beset with hooked prickles. X. spino'sum, Spiny or Thorny Clotbur; N. America, S. Europe; leaves with spines at base 2.5 Cm. (1') long; fertile axillary burs (achenes) crowned with 1 inconspicuous beak. X. canaden'se, and its var. echina'tum; achenes with 2 stout beaks, hooked, 2.5 Cm. (1') long, densely prickly, hispid; river banks, waste places; var. echinatum, smaller plant - possibly unworthy of variety distinction.
Car'Thamus Tincto'Rius, Safflower. The dried florets, official 1820-1880, India, cultivated; in America, etc Annual herb .3-6 M. (1-2°) high, branched; leaves spinose; flowers orange-red, corolla tubular, 2.5 Cm. (1') long, 5-lobed, odor slight, taste bitter; contain volatile oil, carthamin (red) .5 p. c, saffron yellow 24-30 p. c. Diaphoretic (hot infusion), tonic, laxative; measles, scarlatina (to promote eruption), catarrh, rheumatism; in infusion. Dose, gr. 5-15 (.3-1 Gm.).