Arnica moutana,

Linne.

The dried flower-heads.

Habitat. Europe - Germany, Switzerland (Alps, Pyrenees) - N. Asia, N. W. America; in mountains and moist upland meadows.

Syn. Arnic, Arnica Flowers, Leopard's-bane, Wolf's-bane, Mountain Arnica or Tobacco; Br. Arnica) Flores; Fr. Fleurs (d'Arnique) d'Arnica; Ger. Flores Arnicae, Arnikabluten, Fallkraut. Wohlverleich (bluten)

Ar'ni-ca. L. fr. Gr

Arnica Arnica 823

a sheep's skin - i. e., resemblance of hairy stem and leaves; or from

Arnica Arnica 824

i. c, causing one to sneeze. Mon-ta'na. L. montanus, mountainous, from its preferred place of growth.

Plant. - Perennial herb; stem .3 M. (1°) high, hairy, striate; leaves - radical oblong-ovate, entire, ciliated, obtuse - cauline lanceolate, both kinds bright green, pubescent; rhizome 5 Cm. (2') long, 2-4 Mm. (1/12 - 1/6') thick, brown, wrinkled, internally whitish, bark thick, under surface with numerous roots, fragile, 10 Cm. (4') long; achenes crowned with hairy pappus. Flowers, May-June, subglo-bular, yellowish-brown, 2.5-5 Cm. (1-2') broad, 2 Cm. (4/5') long, consisting of disk- and ray-florets, occasionally with involucre and receptacle; involucral bracts narrowly lanceolate, 1 Cm. (2/5') long, dark green, pubescent; receptacle slightly convex, deeply pitted, densely short-hairy; ray-florets bright yellow; ligulate portion 2 Cm. (4/5) long, often folded lengthwise, 3-toothed, 7-12-veined, pistillate; disk-florets (tubular) perfect, reddish-yellow, stamens without tail-like appendage (dist. from Inula Helenium with 2 bristles or long tails at the base); achenes fusiform, 5-7 Mm. (1/5-1/3') long, brown, striate. glandular-pubescent, long pappus of barhellate bristles; odor characteristic agreeable; taste bitter, acrid. Powder, yellowish-brown - many spinose pollen grains, non-glandular hairs (3 kinds), glandular hairs (3 kinds), pappus of multicellular axis with unicellular branches. Solvents: diluted alcohol; hot water. Dose, gr. 5-20 (.3-1.3 Gm.).

Fig. 428.   Arnica montana: 1, rhizome and stem; 2, flowering stem; 3, vertical section of disk flower; 4. ray floret.

Fig. 428. - Arnica montana: 1, rhizome and stem; 2, flowering stem; 3, vertical section of disk-flower; 4. ray-floret.

Adulterations. - Flowers: Flowers of many Composite - Calendula, Anthemis (both without pappus), Inula, Doron'icum, Sene'cio (naked receptacle), Scorzone'ra, and Tragopo'gon (florets all ligulate); Powder: Curcuma - recognized by starch grains; chrome alum - increases ash.

Commercial. - Flowers used mostly in medicine, lose 75 p. c. on drying and in Germany are deprived of involucre and receptacle, because these parts often are attacked by larva of the arnica-fly (Trype'ta arniciv'ora), an insect which should always be removed when found.

Constituents. - Arnicin, C12H22O2, 4 p. c, volatile oil .04-.07 p. c, resin, fat, salt, arnidiol (phytosterol), ash 6-9 p. c.

Arnicin. - A glucoside obtained by passing tincture through animal charcoal, evaporating, adding to residue ether, which dissolves arnicin and fat, and this shaken with alcohol dissolves out arnicin. It is yellow, amorphous, acrid taste, soluble in alcohol, ether, alkalies (NH4OH, KOH, NaOH, NaHCO3), slightly in water.

Preparations. - 1. Tinctura Arnicae. Tincture of Arnica. (Syn., Tr. Arnic, Tinctura Arnicae Florum; Fr. Teinture d'Arnica; Ger. Tinctura Arnicae, Arnikatinktur.)

Manufacture: 20 p. c. Moisten 20 Gm. with diluted alcohol 50 Ml. (Cc.), transfer to percolator without pressing, let stand, well-covered, for 24 hours, pack with moderate pressure, percolate to 25 Ml. (Cc.), stop flow, macerate for 24 hours, percolate to 50 Ml. (Cc.), stop flow, macerate for 12 hours, percolate to 75 Ml. (Cc.), stop flow, macerate for 12 hours, percolate q. s. 100 Ml. (Cc.). If ammonia water 3j to Oij (4 Ml. (Cc.) - 1 L.) be added to the first macerating menstruum, a much darker-colored preparation is obtained, which is equally efficient. Dose, exv-45 (1-3 Ml. (Cc.)).

Unoff. Preps.: Flowers: Extract, dose, gr. 1-3 (.06-2 Gm.). Fluidextract (dil. alc), dose, ev-20 (.3-1.3 Ml. (Cc.)). Infusion, dose, ℥ss-l (15-30 Ml. (Cc.)). Fomentation. Rhizome: Decoction, 5 p. c, dose, 3iv (15 Ml. (Cc.)). Extract (diluted alcohol), dose, gr. 1-3 (.06-.2 Gm.). Fluidextract (75 p. c alcohol), dose, ev-10 (.3-.6 Ml. (Cc.)). Tincture, 10 p. c (65 p. c alcohol), dose, ev-20 (.3-1.3 Ml. (Cc.)). Plaster.

Properties. - Stimulant, tonic, carminative, diuretic, nervine, emmenagogue, irritant, sternutatory, vulnerary; large doses emetic, cathartic, causing abdominal pains, headache, collapse, resembling aconite.

Fig. 429.   Arnica montana: hr, rhizome; n w, roots.

Fig. 429. - Arnica montana: hr, rhizome; n-w, roots.

Fig. 430.   Arnica: transverse section of rhizome, natural size, and magnified 12 diam.

Fig. 430. - Arnica: transverse section of rhizome, natural size, and magnified 12 diam.

Uses. - Typhoid condition, brain concussion, intermittents, dysentery, diarrhoea, gout, nephritis, rheumatism, dropsy, amaurosis, chlorosis, amenorrhoea, chronic catarrh, paralysis, nervous affections. The natives of Savoy and the Vosges use the flowers and leaves as a substitute for tobacco. Locally in paralysis, sprains, bruises, abrasions, hence the German name Fallkraut, accident plant. Atropine best antidote.

Allied Plants:

1. Arnica folio'sa, A. alpi'na, and A. Chamisso'nis. - California to Maine. These have flowers closely resembling the official.

2. Senec'io au'reus, Life Root, Ragwort, Squaw-weed, Eastern N. America. Perennial herb, .3-.6 M. (1-2°) high, stem nearly smooth, flooted; rhizome short, resembling arnica, rosette of basal leaves, each rounded, 5-7 Cm. (2-3') broad, crenate-dentate, stem leaves smaller, narrower, pinnatifid, sessile, creeping; few heads, yellow, corymb, involucral scales in 2 series, pappus of white bristles; odor characteristically aromatic, taste bitter, astringent, acrid, pungent; contains volatile oil, resin, bitter principle (senecin), tannin. Stimulant, diuretic, emmenagogue, vulnerary; atonic conditions, amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea. Dose, 3ss-l (2-4 Gm.); decoction, infusion, 5 p. c, ℥j-2 (30-60 Ml. (Cc.)); dried overground portions used; popular with Eclectics, Homeopaths, American Indians.