Asiii-v = 74.9.

The element arsenic (L. arsenicum, fr. Gr.

Arsenum Arsenicum Arsenic 918

orpiment; lit.

masculine, strong - i. e., powerful poison), official 1850-1880, is distributed widely, but generally in small quantities; occurs as native arsenic (cobaltum or fly-stone), as two sulphides (red orpiment or realgar, AS2S2, and yellow orpiment, As2S3), and as arsenides of various metals (arsenical pyrites or mispickel, FeAsS, cobalt glance, CoS2,-CoAS2, and tin-white cobalt, CoAS2). The metal may be obtained by heating arsenical pyrites - FeS2,FeAs2 + heat = 2As + 2FeS. Arsenic being volatile, passes over, condenses, and should be purified by heating with charcoal, as it may contain AS2O3; thus, AS2O3 + 3C = 3CO + 2As. Metal is a steel-gray, metallic mass, losing lustre by forming a film of oxide, brittle, volatile, sp. gr. 5.73-5.88; used as a fly-poison and in shot (alloy of lead and arsenic); forms two kinds of salts - arsenous (lower) and arsenic (higher).

Tests for Arsenic Salts: 1. H2S in acid solution precipitates bright yellow orpiment, AS2S2, soluble in ammonia water. 2. AgNO3 with ammonia water precipitates in neutral solutions of arsenous acid yellow silver arsenite, Ag3AsO3, in arsenic acid solution get reddish-brown precipitate of silver arsenate, Ag3AsO4. 3. Cupric sulphate + arsenous acid + ammonia water precipitates Scheele's green - cupric arsenite, CuHAsO3. 4. Marsh's test: Add to arsenic solution Zn + H2SO4, the escaping hydrogen gas when ignited deposits brown metallic ring upon cold porcelain, soluble in solution of chlorinated lime (bleaching-powder). 5. Reinsch's test: Add bright copper plate to acid arsenical solution, heat, when it becomes coated with film of metallic arsenic.

Arseni Trioxidum. Arsenic Trioxide, As2O3. - (Syn., Arsen. Triox., Arsenous Acid, Arsenous Oxide, White Arsenic, Arsenic, Flowers of Arsenic, Arsenicum Album; Br. Acidum Arseniosum, Arsenious Anhydride; Fr. Acide arsenieux, Arsenic blanc, Fleurs d'Arsenic; Ger. Acidum arsenicosum, Arsenige Saure, Weisser Arsenik.)

Manufacture: This is often a by-product in separating metal from the ores (cobalt, nickel, tin, silver, arsenical iron pyrites) metallurgi-cally, when by roasting it sublimes; it becomes acid only in the presence of water - 2As2O3 + 6H2O = 4H3AsO3. It is a heavy solid - either an opaque, white powder, or irregular masses of two varieties: one amorphous, transparent, colorless like glass; the other crystalline, opaque, white, resembling porcelain; often same piece has opaque, white outer crust enclosing the glassy variety, the latter being converted into the former when exposed to moist air; both odorless, tasteless, slowly soluble in water, the glassy (30) more so than the crystalline (100), slightly soluble in alcohol, ether, freely in glycerin, hydrochloric acid, alkaline solutions; heated to 200° C(392° F.) - glassy - fuses, sublimes; crystalline - sublimes without fusing - residue .1 p. c.; contains 99.8 p. c. of pure salt. Tests: 1. Heat slowly in dry test-tube - sublimate of octahedral crystals, not yellow (abs. of arse-nous sulphide). 2. Heat strongly with charcoal - reduced metallic arsenic deposits on cooler portion of tube as a mirror, soluble in sodium or calcium hypochlorite. 3. Aqueous solution faintly acid; solution in ammonia water, 1 in 10 (gentle heat) - colorless. Impurities: Antimony, tin, cadmium, arsenous sulphide. Dose, gr. -1/30 - 1/15 (.002-.004 Gm.), on full stomach, until puffiness of eyelids or curative effect produced.

Preparations. - 1. Liquor Acidi Arsenosi. Solution of Arsenous Acid. (Syn., Liq. Acid. Arsen., Hydrochloric Solution of Arsenic, Solution of Arsenic Chloride; Br. Liquor Arsenici Hydrochloricus; Fr. Liqueur arsenicale hydrochlorique; Ger. Chlorarseniklosung.)

Manufacture: 1 p. c. Mix in a tared flask diluted hydrochloric acid 5 Gm. with distilled water 25 Gm., add arsenic trioxide 1 Gm., boil until dissolved, cool, add distilled water q. s. 100 Gm., filter. It is a clear, colorless aqueous liquid, odorless, acidulous taste, acid reaction; contains arsenous acid equivalent to .975-1.025 p. c. of arsenic trioxide. Tests: 1. With hydrogen sulphide T. S. - lemon-yellow precipitate (arsenic trisulphide), soluble in ammonium carbonate T. S. Dose, eiij-5 (.2-.3 Ml. (Cc.)), ter die, diluted.

2. Liquor Potassii Arsenitis. Solution of Potassium Arsenite. (Syn., Liq. Pot. Arsen., Fowler's Solution, Liquor Arsenicalis (Fowleri), Arsenical Solution, Kali Arsenicosum Solutum; Fr. Liqueur (Solution) arsenicale de Fowler; Ger. Liquor Kalii arsenicosi, Fowlersche Losung (Tropfen).)

Manufacture: 1 p. c. Boil arsenic trioxide 1 Gm., potassium bicarbonate 2 Gm., with distilled water 10 Ml. (Cc.) until dissolved, add distilled water q. s. 97 Gm., add compound tincture of lavender 3 Gm., filter. It is a clear, faintly opalescent aqueous liquid (solution), pinkish, slight odor of lavender, alkaline; contains potassium arsenite, corresponding to .975-1.025 p. c. of arsenic trioxide. Test: 1. Acidulate strongly 10 Ml. (Cc.) with hydrochloric acid, add equal volume of hydrogen sulphide T. S. - yellow precipitate, soluble in ammonium carbonate T. S. Impurities: Arsenate, etc. Should be kept in amber-colored bottles. Dose, eiij-5 (.2-.3 Ml. (Cc.)), ter die, diluted.

3. Arseni lodidum. Arsenous Iodide, Asl3. (Syn., Arsen. Iod., Arsenic Iodide, Arsenici Iodidum, Ioduretum Arseniosum; Fr. Iodure d'Arsenic; Ger. Arsenicum (Arsenum) jodatum, Arsenik Jodur, Arsentrijodid.)

Manufacture: 1, As2O3 + 6HC1 (hot) = 2AsCl3 + 3H2O, which by double decomposition with KI gives Asl3; thus, 2AsCl3 + 6KI = 2AsI3 + 6KC1; 2, As2O3 + 6HI = 2AsI3 + 3H2O; 3, triturate and heat together metallic arsenic 75 parts and iodine 380. It is an orange-

Fig. 466.   Sublimate arsenic trioxide, magnified.

Fig. 466. - Sublimate arsenic trioxide, magnified.

ml, inodorous, crystalline powder, stable when kept cool and dark, soluble with partial decomposition in water (12), alcohol, chloroform, ether, carbon disulphide; heated on water-bath - loses no iodine, beyond that volatilizes - residue .5 p. c; warmed with nitric acid - brown vapors of nitrogen oxides, followed by those of iodine (violet); contains 99 p. c. of pure salt. Tests: 1. Aqueous solution (colorh upon standing yellow - decomposing into arsenous, hydriodic acids) + hydrochloric acid + hydrogen sulphide T. S. - lemon-yellow precipitate (arsenous sulphide). 2. Aqueous solution (1 in 20) 5 Ml. (Cc.) + chlorine water 1 Ml. (Cc.) - liberates iodine, solution light reddish-brown; agitate mixture with little chloroform - latter violet. Should be kept cool, dark, in amber-colored, glass-stoppered vials. Dose, gr. 1/20-1/10 (.003-.006 Gm.).

Prep.: 1. Liquor Arseni et Hydrargyri Iodidi, 1 p. c.

Unoff. Prep.: Liquor Arsenicalis, Clemens - arsenic trioxide 1, potassium bicarbonate 4, bromine .5, water q. s. 100.

Properties and Uses. - Arsenic Trioxide - alterative, anaphrodi-siac, irritant poison, nervine, tonic; chronic malaria, intermittents, skin diseases (eczema, psoriasis, lepra, prurigo), nervous debility, chorea, chronic rheumatism, gout, constitutional syphilis, frontal neuralgia, hemicrania, obesity, gastralgia, anaemia, spasmodic asthma, amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, menorrhagia, leucorrhoea, diabetes, albuminuria, chronic diarrhoea. Externally - cancers, lupus, epithelial tumors, sarcoma, warts, malignant ulcers, carious teeth. The two liquors are good forms for administration, but it may also be given in tablet, pill, etc. Arsenic Iodide - alterative, irritant poison, used like the acid, but mostly in pill form, and never should be applied on abraded surfaces; Donovan's solution and the ointment (1/2-l p. c.) have merited popularity.

Poisoning: All arsenic compounds produce symptoms resembling those of cholera: constriction and heat of fauces, faintness, nausea, burning abdominal pain and tenderness, thirst, violent retching, vomiting (brown often streaked with blood), bloody stools, tenesmus, strangury, cold skin, small and feeble pulse, spasms, dyspnoea, death in collapse. Wash out stomach, give emetics, follow with recently prepared ferric hydroxide or ferric hydroxide with magnesium oxide, dialyzed iron, to envelop, as well as to form insoluble ferric arsenite, or arsenate, chalk, lime water, demulcents, opiates, stimulants, heat, spirit nitrous ether, remove iron compound with zinc sulphate.

Incompatibles: Salts of iron, silver, copper, ammonium, calcium, magnesium oxide, vegetable astringents.

Synergists: Restoratives, nux vomica, etc.