1. Quebracho Colorado (Loxopteryg'Ium Lorent'Zii - Red Quebracho)

Quebracho Colorado (Loxopteryg'Ium Lorent'Zii - Red Quebracho). S. America, Bark checkered, wood red, light brown (Colorado); contains tannin 20 p. c, loxopterygine; resinous exudation of bark resembles kino; resembles official but deeper color, largely used in tanning. Quebracho flo'ja {Iodi'na rhombifo'lia), S. America, and Copalchi Bark (Croton ni'veus), Mexico. All three collected and sold as aspidosperma.

2. Ascle'Pias Tubero'Sa, Asclepias, Pleurisy Root

Ascle'Pias Tubero'Sa, Asclepias, Pleurisy Root. Asclepiadacese. The dried root, official 1850-1900; United States, Canada. Perennial plant with numerous stems, .6-1 M. (2-3°) high, hairy, green or reddish, differing from other asclepias in not emitting milky juice; flowers beautiful orange-red. Root, large, fusiform, in pieces 2.5-15 Cm.

(1-6') long, 2.5 Cm. (1') thick, head knotty, annulate, yellowish-brown, fracture tough, uneven, bark thin, wood with large medullary rays; inodorous; taste hitter, acrid; contains asclepiadin -the active glucoside, volatile oil, 2 resins, mucilage, starch, tannin, ash 9 p. c. Diaphoretic, expectorant, carminative, sudorific, anodyne, irritant; large doses emetic, cathartic; pleurisy (hence its name), pneumonia, consumption, rheumatism of chest, colic, dyspepsia, asthma, scrofula, ulcers, wounds. Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.); fluidextract (diluted alcohol) 3ss-l (2-4 Ml. (Cc.)).

3. A. incarna'ta, Flesh-colored Asclepias, Swamp Milkweed. - The root (rhizome), official 1820-1860 and 1S70-1880; Canada, United States. Perennial herb, smooth or pubescent, .6-1 M. (2-3°) high, with 2 downy lines above; very leafy; leaves lanceolate, cordate base, 10-17.5 Cm. (4-70 long, 2.5-5 Cm. (1-2') wide; flowers rose-purple, sweet-scented; root 2.5 Cm. (1') long, knotty, oblong, brownish, bark thin, central pith, sweet, then acrid bitter, emits milky juice when wounded; contains volatile oil, 2 acrid resins, asclepiadin. Used as alterative, emetic, cathartic, diuretic, like Asclepias tuberosa; in decoction, infusion, tincture. Dose, gr. 15-40 (1-2.6 Gm.).

4. A. syri'aca (Cornu'ti), Common Milkweed, Silkweed. - The root (rhizome), official 1820-1860 and 1870-1880; United States. Herb 1-1.5 M. (3-5°) high, stout, pubescent, finely soft; leaves oblong, 10-20 Cm. (4-8') long, downy beneath; flowers large, purplish-white, sweet-scented, hoods ovate with a tooth each side of stout, claw-like horn; fruit prickly pods containing much silky seed-down; root 2.5-15 Cm. (1-6') long, 6-12 Mm. (1/4-1/2') thick, in sections, wrinkled, knotty, brownish; bark tough, thick, with laticiferous vessels, wood-wedges yellow, bitter, nauseous; contains asclepion (tasteless), bitter, crystalline principle, caoutchouc (6 p. c. of milk-juice), resin, tannin, starch. Used like preceding, also to coat over wounds, ulcers, etc., to promote cicatrization. Dose, gr. 15-40 (1-2.6 Gm.). A. curassav'ica, Bastard Ipecacuanha, C. and S. America; flowers bright red; the glossy' seed-hairs, called vegetable silk, firmer than the preceding; contains asclepiadin; used natively as we do Asclepias tuberosa.

5. Marsde'Nia (Gonol'Obus) Conduran'Go, Condurango

Marsde'Nia (Gonol'Obus) Conduran'Go, Condurango. Ecuador. Climbing vine, 3-9 M. (10-30°) high, bark of the stem used in medicine; occurs in quills or curved pieces, periderm ash-gray, wrinkled, warty, with greenish-black lichens attached; liber pale brownish and striate, due to stone cells; odor slight; taste bitter, acrid; contains tannin, a glucoside, an alkaloid (resembling strychnine in action), resins, starch, gum, ash 12 p. c. Used for tonic, alterative, rheumatism, cancer. Dose, gr. 30 (2 Gm.); fluidextract (dil. ale), 3ss-l (2-4 Ml. (Cc.)).