Citrus Aurantium, var. amara, Linne.

The dried rind of the fruit.

Habitat. N. India, cultivated near the Mediterranean Sea, Spain, W. Indies, Madeira, China, S. and S. W. United States, Florida, California, etc.

Syn. Aurant. Amar. Cort., Curacao (Wild) Orange, Aurantii Pericarpium, Cortex Pomorum Aurantii; Br. Aurantii Cortex Recens, Aurantii Cortex Siccatus; Fr. Ecorce (Zeste) d'Orange amere, Ecorce de Bigarade; Ger. Cortex Aurantii Fructus, Pomeranzenschale.

Cit'rus. L. fr. Gr.

Aurantii Amari Cortex Bitter Orange Peel 479

after the town of Citron in Judea, where it formerly flourished.

Au-ran'ti-um. L. aurum, gold - i. e., yellow color of fruit. A-ma'ra. L. amarus, bitter - i. e., the decided bitter taste of the fruit. Orange. Eng. fr. Skr. nagarange through the Arab, naranj.

Plant. - Small tree 3-4.6 M. (10-15°) high; stem branched; bark shining, smooth, greenish-brown; leaves 7.5-10 Cm. (3-4') long, ovate, evergreen, faintly serrate, with oil-vesicles, fragrant, petioles 12-25 Mm. (1/2-1') long; flowers May, 2.5 Cm. (1') broad, white; fruit 5-10 Cm. (2-4') in diameter, round, red or yellow, 9-11-celled, each several-seeded. Rind (zest), in narrow thin bands (ribbons), often elliptical, flattened, curved pieces (quarters), 3-6 Cm. (l 1/5-2 2/5) long; outer surface convex, yellowish-brown (ribbons), greenish-brown (quarters), coarsely reticulate, edges recurved; inner surface concave, whitish, numerous conical projections and yellowish-white fibro-vascular bundles; fracture hard; transverse section light brown, spongy, outer layer with 1-2 rows of oil reservoirs; odor fragrant; taste aromatic, bitter. Powder, yellowish-white; microscopically many fragments of parenchyma cells, few of tracheae and membrane, calcium oxalate crystals; with potassium hydroxide T. S. - yellowish. Solvents: alcohol; water. Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.).

Commercial. - This bitter fruit grows mostly in Spain, Madeira, India, China, being known as Seville or Bigarade Orange, and is not in the fresh state a commercial article with us. The Mandarin (C. sinen'sis), S. Europe, is much smaller, having flattened ends, very thin rind, and pleasant taste. The celebrated Bizarria, of Italy, produces on the same stem oranges, lemons, and citrons, and these often in mixed parts.

Fig. 223.   Citrus aurantiurn, var. amara: 1, the end of a flowering twig; 2, flower, vertical section; 3, longitudinal section of ovary; 4, seed; 5, longitudinal section of seed; 6, diagram of flower.

Fig. 223. - Citrus aurantiurn, var. amara: 1, the end of a flowering twig; 2, flower, vertical section; 3, longitudinal section of ovary; 4, seed; 5, longitudinal section of seed; 6, diagram of flower.

Fig. 224.   Orange peel: transverse section, magnified 65 diam.

Fig. 224. - Orange peel: transverse section, magnified 65 diam.

Constituents. - Volatile oil, naringen (aurantiin) very bitter gluco-side, aurantiamarin 1.5-2.5 p. c, leading bitter glucoside, isohesperidin .4-3 p. c, aurantiamaric acid .1 p. c, hesperidin, hesperic acid, (fixed oil, resin, gum, albumin, tannin, ash 4-7 p. c).

Preparations. - I. Rind: 1. Fluidextractum Aurantii Amari. Fluidextract of Bitter Orange Peel. (Syn., Fldext. Aurant. Amar., Fluid Extract of Bitter Orange Peel; Fr. Extrait fluide d'Ecorce d'Orange amere; Ger. Pomeranzenschalen fluidextrakt.)

Manufacture: Similar to Fluidextractum Aconiti, page 202; menstruum: 75 p. c. alcohol. Dose, 3ss-l (2-4 Ml. (Cc.)).

2. Tinctura Aurantii Amari. Tincture of Bitter Orange Peel. (Syn., Tr. Aurant. Amar.; Br. Tinctura Aurantii; Fr. Teinture d'Ecorce d'Oranges ameres; Ger. Pomeranzen(schalen)tinktur.)

Manufacture: 20 p. c. Similar to Tinctura Veratri Viridis, page 101; menstruum: 60 p. c. alcohol. Dose, 3j-2 (4-8 Ml. (Cc.)).

3. Tinctura Cinchona Composita, 8 p. c. 4. Tinctura Gentians Composita, 4 p. c.

II. Flowers: 1. Aqua Aurantii Florum Fortior. Stronger Orange Flower Water. (Syn., Aq. Aurant. Flor. Fort., Aqua Aurantii Florum, Triple Orange Flower Water.)

Manufacture: Obtained as a by-product in distilling oil of orange flowers, or by collecting 3 parts of distillate from 2 of flowers. It is a saturated aqueous solution, colorless, clear, faintly opalescent, strong pleasant odor and taste of orange blossoms; must be free from empyreuma, mustiness, mucoid growths. Tests: 1. Evaporate 100 Ml. (Cc.) - residue .001 Gm.; neutral, slightly acid. 2. With hydrogen sulphide T. S. or sodium sulphide T. S. - no reaction (abs. of metallic impurities). Should be kept cool, dark, in bottles stoppered with a pledget of purified cotton. Dose, 3j-4 (4-15 Ml. (Cc.)).

Preps.: 1. Aqua Aurantii Florum. Orange Flower Water. (Syn., Aq. Aurant. Flor., Aqua Florum Kaphae; Fr. Eau (Hydrolat.) distillee de Fleurs d'Oranger, Eau de Naphe; Ger. Orangen-bluthenwasser.) Manufacture: Mix, just before using, equal volumes of stronger orange flower water and recently boiled distilled water. Dose, 3ij-8 (8-30 Ml. (Cc.)). Preps.: 1. Syrupus Aurantii Florum. Syrup of Orange Flowers. (Syn., Syr. Aurant. Flor.; Fr. Sirop de Fleurs d'Oranges; Ger. Pomeranzenbluthensirup.) Manufacture: Dissolve by agitation sugar 85 Gm. in orange flower water 45 Ml. (Cc), add of the latter q. s. 100 Ml. (Cc), mix thoroughly, strain. Dose, ad libitum; as a flavoring vehicle. 2. Syrupus Lactucarii, 5 p. c 2. Trochisci Acidi Tannici) q. s.

Unoff. Preps.: Infusum Aurantii (Br.), 5 p. c, dose, 3iv_8 (15-30 Ml. (Cc.)). Infusum Aurantii Compositum (Br.), 2.5 p. c (+ lemon peel 1, clove .5). Vinum Aurantii (Br.). Oil of Fresh Peel. Oil of Flowers (Nerole).

Properties. - Stimulant, tonic, carminative, stomachic, bitter; excessive doses of both peel and oil cause colic, convulsions, occasionally death.

Uses. - In indigestion, flatulence, corrigent to purgatives; aromatic when in combination with gentian, calumba, quassia, cinchona, etc.; most of the preparations are used as flavoring agents. Workmen employed among the fruit have skin eruptions, nervousness, headache, gastralgia, insomnia, muscular spasms.