Citrus Aurantium, var. sinensis, Gallesio.

The outer rind of the fresh, ripe fruit.

Habitat. Same as C. Aurantium, var. amara.

Syn. Aurant. Dulc. Cort, Curacao, Navel (Seedless) Orange, Forbidden Fruit, Golden (Orange) Apple, Nerotia Flowers; Fr. ficorce (Zeste) d'Orange douce; Ger. Apfelsinenchalen.

Si-nen'sis. L. (Chinensis) Chinese, of or belonging to China - i. e., its chief habitat.

Plant. - Small tree, 4.5-6 M. (15-20°) high, identical with C. Aurantium, var. amara, differing only in point of variety, but having leaves and flowers more fragrant, and the fruit sweeter, larger, deeper yellow. Rind (zest), the outer orange-yellow layer recently separated by grating or paring, consisting of epidermal cells, parenchyma cells of sarcocarp with chromoplastids, oil reservoirs and globules of volatile oil; odor highly fragrant; taste pungently aromatic. Solvents: alcohol; water. Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.).

Fig. 225.   Citrus Aurantium, var. sinensis.

Fig. 225. - Citrus Aurantium, var. sinensis.

Commercial. - This sweet fruit grows only by cultivation; was unknown to the Greeks and Romans, being introduced first into Europe by the Portuguese in the 15th century; There are now some fifty varieties cultivated in Spain, Portugal, Madeira, Azores, China, West Indies, S. and S. W. United States, many of which have been given commercial names after the districts of production, as China, Portugal, Havana, Florida, California, Messina, and Malta (blood-red). These are imported in boxes of 100-200, having each orange wrapped in tissue-paper, the sweetest coming to us from Havana, Florida, and Calir fornia.

Constituents. - Volatile oil, hesperidin, (fixed oil, resin, gum, tannin, ash 4-5 p. c).

Oleum Aurantii. Oil of Orange, official. - (Syn., 01. Aurant., Oleum Aurantii Corticis, U. S. P. 1900, Orange Oil, Oil of Sweet Orange, Oleum Aurantiorum, Essence (Essential Oil) of Orange; Fr. Huile d'Orange; Ger. Pomeranzenschalenol.) This volatile oil is produced mostly in S. Italy, Sicily, by expression from the fresh peel of sweet orange (and its varieties), or rupturing the oil-glands mechanically and collecting the liberated oil, as with oil of lemon; if obtained by distillation the product is decidedly less fragrant. It is a yellow liquid, characteristic odor and taste of orange peel, sp. gr. 0.844, soluble in 4 vols, of alcohol; contains limonene (citrene, hesperi-dene), C10H16, 90 p. c, odor bearers (citral, citronellal, methyl ester of anthranylic acid). Tests: 1. Dextrorotatory; portion distilling below 170° C. (338° F.) should not yield pinene nitrosochloride and nitrosopinene, nor have a terebinthinate odor or taste (abs. of oil of turpentine. Formerly the oil from the peel of bitter orange was also official, which chemically is indistinguishable, but in spite of superior flavor is now very scarce and usually mixed with oil of sweet orange. Oil having a terebinthinate odor must not be dispensed. Should be kept cool, dark, in small, well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles (to avoid developing terebinthinate odor). Usually shipped in tinned-copper cans. Dose, ej-5 (.06-.3 Ml. (Cc.)). Adulterations. - Oil of turpentine, alcohol, etc. Preparations. - I. Rind: 1. Tinctura Aurantii Dulcis. Tincture of Sweet Orange Peel. (Syn., Tr. Aurant. Dulc.; Fr. Teinture d'Orange douce; Ger. Apfelsinenschalentinktur.)

Manufacture: 50 p. c. Similar to Tinctura Aloes, page 110 - macerating in alcohol 100 Ml. (Cc), filtering through purified cotton, and finishing with alcohol q. s. 100 Ml. (Cc). Dose, 3j-2 (4-8 Ml. (Cc.)); as a flavoring vehicle.

Preps: 1. Syrupus Aurantii. Syrup of Orange. (Syn., Syr. Aurant., Syrupus Aurantii Corticis, Syrup of Orange Peel; Fr. Sirop d'Ecorce d'Orange; Ger. Pomeranzen(Orangen)-schalen-sirup.) Manufacture: Triturate purified talc 1.5 Gm. with tincture of sweet orange peel 5 Ml. (Cc), add gradually distilled water 40 Ml. (Cc), filter, add through filter distilled water q. s. 45 Ml. (Cc.); dissolve in this, by agitation, citric acid .5 Gm., sugar 82 Gm. (without heat), add distilled water q. s. 100 Ml. (Cc.), mix thoroughly. Dose, ad libitum; as a flavoring vehicle. II. Oil: 1. Spiritus Aurantii Compositus. Compound Spirit of Orange. (Syn., Sp. Aur. Co.; Fr. Esprit d'Orange composee; Ger. Zusammengesetzter Orangengeist.)

Manufacture: 20 p. c Dissolve oil 20 Ml. (Cc.), + oil of lemon 5 Ml. (Cc.), oil of coriander 2 Ml. (Cc.), oil of anise .5 Ml. .(Cc.) in alcohol q. s. 100 Ml. (Cc.). Should be kept cool, dark, in completely filled, well-stoppered bottles. As a flavoring vehicle.

Preps: 1. Elixir Aromaticum. Aromatic Elixir. (Syn., Elix. Arom., Simple Elixir; Fr. Elixir aromatique; Ger. Aromatisches Elixir.) Manufacture: 1 1/5 p. c To compound spirit of orange 1.2 Ml. (Cc), add alcohol q. s. 25 Ml. (Cc.), to this add syrup 37.5 Ml. (Cc.), in several portions with agitation, distilled water 37.5 Ml. (Cc.), purified talc 3 Gm., filter until clear, wash filter with 25 p. c of alcohol q. s. 100 Ml. (Cc.); as a flavoring vehicle. Prep.: 1. Elixir Glycyrrhizoe, 87.5 p. c

Properties and Uses. - Aromatic; chiefly for flavoring and in perfumery; fruit deliciously edible.