Manufacture: Pilular, macerate percolate 100 Gm. with 75 p. c. alcohol until exhausted (300 Ml. (Cc.)), reclaim alcohol, evaporate residue at 70° C. (158° F.) to pilular consistence, frequently stirring, mix thoroughly; after assay add enough glucose for extract to contain 1.25 p. c. of total alkaloids, mix thoroughly. Powdered, macerate, percolate 100 Gm. with alcohol, reserve first 100 Ml. (Cc.) and continue until exhausted (100 Ml. (Cc.)); reclaim alcohol from second percolate until residue in still is 10 Ml. (Cc), to which add first reserve and distil until residue of syrupy consistence; transfer to a dish, rinse still with little warm alcohol, which add to dish and evaporate at 70° C. (158° F.) to pilular consistence, frequently stirring, add dried starch 5 Gm., heat, with stirring, until nearly dry, thoroughly incorporate magnesium oxide 2 Gm., expose to current of warm air until dry, pulverize; after assay add enough dried starch for extract to contain 1.25 p. c. of total alkaloids, mix thoroughly, pass through fine sieve; contains 1.18-1.32 - 1.25 p. c. of the alkaloids; 1 Gm. represents about 4 Gm. of the drug. Should be kept in small, wide-mouthed, tightly-stoppered bottles. Dose, gr. 1/4-1/2 (.016-.03 Gm.).

Preps.: 1. Emplastrum Belladonnoe. Belladonna Plaster. (Syn., Emp. Bellad.; Fr. Emplatre d'Extrait de Belladone; Ger. Belladonnapflaster.) Manufacture: Melt adhesive plaster 70 Gm., add extract of belladonna leaves 30 Gm., softened by heat, stir until homogeneous, cool; contains 30 p. c. of extract of belladonna leaves, yielding .35-.40 p. c. of total alkaloids. 2. Unguentum Belladonna. Belladonna Ointment. (Syn., Ung. Bellad.; Fr. Pommade Belladonee; Ger. Tollkirschensalbe.)

Manufacture: Triturate pilular extract of belladonna leaves 10

Gm. with diluted alcohol 5 ML (Cc), until a smooth mixture, incorporate hydrous wool fat 30 Gm., add benzoinated lard 55

Gm., mix thoroughly.

2. Tinctura Belladonna Foliomm. Tincture of Belladonna Leaves.

(Syn., Tr. Bellad. Fol.; Br. Tinctura Belladonnae; Fr. Teinture de

Belladone; Ger. Belladonnatinktur.)

Manufacture: 10 p. c. Similar to Tinctura Veratri Viridis, page 101; menstruum: diluted alcohol - percolate 95 Ml. (Cc), assay, and add enough menstruum for the 100 Ml. (Cc.) to contain .027-.033 - .03 (rm. of total alkaloids. Dose, ej-30 (.06-2 Ml. (Cc.)).

II. Root: 1. Fluidextractum Belladonna Radicis. Fluidextract of Belladonna Root. (Syn., Fldext. Bellad. Rad., Fluid Extract of Belladonna Root; Br. Extractum Belladonnae Liquidum; Fr. Extrait fluide de Racine de Belladone; Ger. Tollkirschen(wurzel)fluidextrakt.)

Manufacture: Similar to Fluidextractum Sabal, page 95; menstruum: 80 p. c. alcohol; reserve first 80 Ml. (Cc), in which dissolve soft extract, assay, and add enough menstruum for the 100 Ml. (Cc.) to contain .405-.495 - .45 Gm. of total alkaloids. Dose, ej-5 (.06-.3 Ml. (Cc.)). Prep.: 1. Linimentum Belladonna. Belladonna Liniment. (Syn., Lin. Bellad.; Fr. Liniment de Belladone; Ger. Belladonna-liniment.) Manufacture: 5 p. c. Dissolve camphor 5 Gm. in fluidextract of belladonna root 80 Ml. (Cc.), then add latter q. s. 100 Ml. (Cc); mix thoroughly; used externally. Unoff. Preps.: I. Leaves: Extractum Belladonna Viride - express juice, heat, strain, evaporate, add coloring matter strained out, dose, gr. 1/4-l (.016-.06 Gm.). Fluidextract, dose, e1/3-3 (.02-2 Ml. (Cc.)). Infusion, 5 p. c, dose, 3j_3 (4-12 Ml. (Cc.)). Succus Belladonna - expressed juice (3), and alcohol (1), dose, ev-15 (.3-1 Ml. (Cc)). II. Root: Abstract, dose, gr. 1/10-1 (.006-.06 Gm.). Extract, dose, gr.1/8-1/2 (.008-.03 Gm.). Suppositoria Belladonna (Br.), each contains 1/60 gr.( -001 Gm.) of alkaloids. III. Atropine: Lamelloe Atropioe (Br.), each 1/5000gr. (.000013 Gm.). Lamelloe Homatropinw (Br.), each 1/100 gr. (.0006 Gm.). Oleate, 2 p. c; used externally. Unguentum Atropina (Br.) 2 p. c

Properties. - Sedative, narcotic, diuretic, mydriatic, antispasmodic, anodyne. Like all medicines that act through nervous system, small doses stimulate, large ones paralyze. Diminishes most secretions (salivary, mammary, skin, stomach, liver, pancreas, intestines) by paralyzing peripheral nerve-endings, increases peristalsis by paralyzing terminations of involuntary intestinal muscles; dilates pupil, increases pulse and urine by paralysis; often causes erythematous eruption.

Uses. - Lessens pain, rheumatism, gout, neuralgia, sciatica, cancer, pelvic derangements, encephalitis, meningitis, myelitis, erysipelas. Inflammation of lungs, iris, bladder, kidneys, breast, acute catarrh, sore throat, asthma, whooping-cough, spasms, constipation, spermatorrhoea, prophylactic against scarlet fever. Locally in abscesses, carbuncles, skin diseases, scarlet fever rash, to check mammary secretion, relieve vomiting of pregnancy; smoke leaves with opium for phthisis. Atropine (hypodermic) is the sheet-anchor in poisoning by opium, physos-tigma, and hydrocyanic acid.

Poisoning: Within 15 minutes have dryness of mouth, dry burning throat, dilated pupils, intense thirst which nothing allays, indistinct and double vision, giddiness, burning in stomach, nausea, difficult deglutition, hallucinations, delirium or fits of laughter, rambling talk, feeble and rapid pulse, cold extremities, coma, convulsions, death; sometimes face red and swoolen, inability to urinate. Give emetics or use pump, enemas, tannic acid, then morphine, physostigmine, or pilocarpine (hypodermic) for nervous disturbance; stimulants, brandy, caffeine,

Fig. 355.   Scopola carniolica: a, flowering and fruiting branch (1/4 nat. size); also flower, stamen, anther, pistil, fruit, seed, enlarged.

Fig. 355. - Scopola carniolica: a, flowering and fruiting branch (1/4 nat. size); also flower, stamen, anther, pistil, fruit, seed, enlarged.

strychnine, artificial respiration, cold to head, warmth to feet, empty bladder. Children often eat the sweet fruit in excess, and should receive this treatment.

Incompatibles: Muscarine, physostigmine, pilocarpine, aconite, opium, tannin, caustic alkalies (evolve ammonia), quinine.

Synergists: Mydriatic drugs (hyoscyamus, stramonium, duboisia).

Allied Plants: