Arsenic, copper, lead, silver, alkali earths, chloride, nitrate, sulphate, free salicylic acid. Should be kept dark. Dose, gr. 5-15 (.3-1 Gm.). Properties and Uses. - Internal antiseptic, astringent; passes through stomach unchanged, but is decomposed in small intestine, where it acts as an unirritating antiseptic. Diarrhoea, typhoid, catarrh of alimentary tract, mucous membrane inflammation, gastric disorders; externally like iodoform - wounds, etc.

Bismuthi Subgallas. Bismuth Subgallate. - (Syn., Bism. Subgal., Dermatol, Bismuthyl Gallate; Fr. Sous-gallate de Bismuth; Ger. Bismutum subgallicum, Basisches Wismutgallat, Wismutsubgallat.)

Bismuthum Bismuth 912

Manufacture: Dissolve bismuth trinitrate (15) in glacial acetic acid (30), add water (250), to filtrate, constantly stirring, add warm aqueous solution of gallic acid (5 in 250), wash precipitate by decanta-tion until free from nitric acid, dry. It is an amorphous, bright yellow powder, odorless, tasteless, permanent, insoluble in water, alcohol, ether, readily soluble with decomposition in warm hydrochloric, nitric, or sulphuric acid, soluble in alkali hydroxide solutions - clear, yellowish, rapidly changing to deep red; composition somewhat varying; contains, upon ignition, 52-57 p. c. of bismuth oxide. Tests: 1. Heat to redness - chars, residue yellow, blackened by hydrogen sulphide T. S., which dissolved in slight excess of warm nitric or hydrochloric acid and added to 25 volumes of distilled water - white turbidity. 2. Agitate .1 Gm. with excess of hydrogen sulphide T. S. - brownish-black precipitate, boil filtrate to remove dissolved gas, cool, + a drop of ferric chloride T. S. - blue-black. Impurities: Arsenic, copper, lead, silver, alkalies, alkali earths, chloride, nitrate, sulphate, free gallic acid. Dose, gr. 5-30 (.3-2 Gm.).

Properties and Uses. - Antiseptic. Like iodoform, but has sedative, astringent, drying, and antibacterial effects upon wounds, ulcers, eczemas; fermentative dyspepsia, diarrhoea of tuberculosis and typhoid fever; apply in powder, ointment (1 + 10 vaseline), gauze (10 p. a).

Incompatibles: Acids.

Magma Bismuthi. Bismuth Magma. - (Syn., Magma Bism., Milk of Bismuth; Fr. Lait de Bismuth; Ter. Wismutmilch.)

Manufacture: Mix in a flask bismuth subnitrate 8 Gm. with distilled water and nitric acid, each 6 Ml. (Cc), agitate, warm gently until dissolved; pour solution, stirring constantly, into 500 ML (Cc.) of distilled water containing nitric acid 6 Ml. (Cc); mix in glazed vessel ammonia water 48 Ml. (Cc.) with distilled water 400 Ml. (Cc), dissolve in it ammonium carbonate 1 Gm., and into this pour the bismuth solution, stirring constantly; unless alkaline render so with ammonia water, let stand until precipitate subsides, pour or siphon off supernatant liquid, wash precipitate twice with distilled water, by decantation, wash magma, add distilled water q. s. 100 Ml. (Cc); mix thoroughly. It is a thick, white, opaque liquid, containing bismuth hydroxide and bismuth subcarbonate in suspension in water, neutral; to 1 Ml. (Cc.) add hydrochloric acid 1 Ml. (Cc.) - clear solution, which poured into 10 volumes of distilled water - white precipitate; contains 5.6-6.2 p. c. of bismuth oxide, Bi2O3. Dose, 3ss-2 (2-8 Ml. (Cc)).

Bismuthi Betanaphtholas. Bismuth Betanaphthol, C10H7O.Bi2O2-(OH). - (Syn., Bism. Betanaph., Bismuth Betanaphtholate, Orphol, Fr. B Naphthol de Bismuth; Ger. Bismutum (Wismut) beta-naphthol.)

Manufacture: Act upon bismuth trinitrate dissolved in dilute glycerin or acid with alkaline solution of betanaphthol. It is a buff, grayish-brown amorphous powder, odorless, faint odor of betanaphthol, tasteless, permanent, nearly insoluble in water, alcohol, chloroform, ether, partially in mineral acids forming corresponding bismuth salts and liberating betanaphthol; composition somewhat varying; should contain 15 p. c. of betanaphthol, and, upon ignition, 73-78 p. c. of bismuth oxide. Tests: 1. Heat strongly - chars, residue grayish-yellow, blackened by hydrogen sulphide T. S. 2. Shake 1 Gm. with chloroform (20 Ml. (Cc.)), evaporate filtrate spontaneously, dry in desiccator - residue 1 p. c. (abs. of free betanaphthol). Impurities: Free betanaphthol, arsenic, copper, lead, silver, chloride, nitrate, sulphate. Dose, gr. 5-8 (.3-5 Gm.), 5-6 times daily; children gr. 1-5 (.06-.3 Gm.).

Properties and Uses. - Decomposed in the duodenum into naphthol and bismuth hydroxide, when each exerts its own effects. Intestinal astringent, antiseptic, substitute for iodoform - diarrhoea, dysentery, cholera infantum, gastro-intestinal catarrh (gastritis), enteritis, dyspepsia, ulcers, mucous inflammations, impetigo; should not be mixed with acacia which forms viscid preparations rapidly hardening.

Bismuthi et Ammonii Citras. Bismuth and Ammonium Citrate, BiC6H5O7,NH4OH,2H2O(?). - (Syn., Bism. et Ammon. Cit., Bismuth Ammonio-Citrate, Bismuthum Citricum Ammoniatum; Fr. Citrate de Bismuth (Ammoniacal) et d'Ammoniaque; Ger. Citronensaures Wismut (oxyd) ammonium.)

Manufacture: Rub to a paste bismuth citrate 100 Gm. with distilled water 200 Ml. (Cc), heat gradually, add ammonia water until salt dissolved and liquid neutral, filter, evaporate to syrupy consistence, spread upon glass plates so as to dry in scales. It is in shining, pearly or translucent scales, odorless, metallic taste, opaque on exposure with loss of ammonia, soluble in water, sparingly in alcohol, fuses leaving blackened residue with yellow surface, which dissolved in nitric or hydrochloric acid produces a white turbidity when added to 25 volumes of distilled water; aqueous solution (1 in 20) neutral, faintly acid; contains, upon ignition, 46-52 p. c. of bismuth oxide. Tests: 1. Boil with slight excess of sodium hydroxide T. S. - evolves ammonia. 2. Aqueous solution + excess of hydrogen sulphide - black precipitate; filtrate deprived by heat of excess of hydrogen sulphide and boiled with excess of lime water - white precipitate. Impurities: Arsenic, copper, lead, silver, alkalies, alkali earths, chloride, nitrate, sulphate. Should be kept dark in well-closed containers. Dose, gr. 1-4 (.06-.26 Gm.), best in solution.

Cnoff. Prep.: Liquor Bismuthi et Ammonii Citratis (Br.), 7 p. c, dose, 3ss-l (2-4 Ml. (Cc.)).

Properties and Uses. - Differs from the insoluble bismuth salts in being more astringent and irritating; employed in chronic serous diarrhoea due to relaxed condition of the intestinal mucous membrane, but never where acute inflammation or irritation exists; not nearly so valuable as the insoluble salts.

Allied Salts:

1. Bismuthi Citras. Bismuth Citrate, BiC6H5O7, official 1880-1910. - Obtained by heating on a water-bath bismuth subnitrate 100 Gm., citric acid 75 Gm., distilled water 400 Ml. (Cc), frequently stirring; until a drop is clear in ammonia water, adding distilled water 5000 Ml. (Cc), washing, drying precipitate - (BiONO3 + H2O) + H3C6H5O7 + H2O) = BiC6H5O7 + HNO3 + 3H2O. It is a white amorphous or crystalline powder, odorless, tasteless, permanent, insoluble in water, alcohol, soluble in ammonia water and alkaline citrate solutions; should yield 58-60 p. c. of pure bismuth oxide. Astringent, irritant, similar to subnitrate; important only as the base of the official bismuth and ammonium citrate. Impurities: Lead, copper, silver, arsenic, chlorides, sulphates, nitrate, etc. Dose, gr. 1-3 (.06-.2 Gm.).

1. Bismuthi Oxidum. Bismuth Oxide, Bi2O3. - Obtained by boiling 5 minutes bismuth subnitrate in solution of sodium hydroxide, filter dry precipitate - 2(BiONO3,H2O) + 2NaOH) = 2Bi(OH)3 or (Bi2O3,-3H2O) + 2NaNO3). Occurs as a dull lemon-yellow powder, resembling the subnitrate in medicinal properties, doses, and uses.