4. Serum Antitetanicum. Antitetanic Serum, official. - (Syn., Ser. Antitetan., Tetanus Antitoxin; Fr. Serum antitetanique; Ger. Tetanus-Heilserum.)
Manufacture: A fluid, having a potency of 100 units per Ml. (Cc), separated from the coagulated blood of the horse, Equus cab alius, or other large domestic animal, which has been immunized properly against tetanus toxin. It is a yellowish, yellowish-brown, transparent or slightly turbid liquid, sometimes with a slight granular deposit; nearly odorless, or odor of antiseptic employed as a preservative; gradually loses its potency, especially at high temperatures. Must come from healthy animals, be sterile, free from toxins or other bacterial products, not contain excess of preservative (.5 p. c. of phenol or cresol, when either used), and not more than 20 p. c. of total solids.
Commercial. - The tetanus toxins are most virulent poisons and their antitoxin, the first discovered, has the same physical and chemical properties as that of diphtheria. The serum is produced precisely as the antidiphtheric serum, using, however, for the repeated injections into the vein of a healthy young horse cultures of the tetanus bacillus. Can only be prepared in establishments licensed by the Secretary of the Treasury, United States, and each container must bear upon the label its name and number, also manufacturer's name, address, license Dumber, date beyond which product is likely to be unreliable, and total number of antitoxic units claimed. The standard of strength, expressed in units of antitoxic power, shall be that established by the United States Public Health Service. It should be kept dark, in sealed glass containers, at 4.5-15° C. (40-59° F.). Dose, hypodermic, 10,000 units; protective, 1,500 units.
Preparations. - 1. Serum Antitetanicum Purification. Purified Antitetanic Serum. - (Syn., Ser. Antitetan. Purif., Antitetanic Globulins, Concentrated Tetanus Antitoxin, Refined and Concentrated Tetanus Antitoxin, Solution of Antitoxic Globulins, Tetanus Antitoxin Globulins.)
Manufacture: Separate from the serum or plasma of the immunized animal the antitoxin-bearing globulins (proteins - by adding ammonium sulphate), dissolve in water, add sodium chloride sufficient to make a .6-9 p. c. solution of the salt. It is a transparent, slightly opalescent liquid, sometimes with slight granular or ropy deposit, or more or less viscous; nearly odorless, or odor of antiseptic employed as a preservative (.5 p. c. of phenol or cresol, when either used); total solids must not exceed 20 p. c, must have potency of 100 units per Ml. (Cc); must conform to all requirements of antitetanic serum and be kept with same precautions. Dose, hypodermic, 10,000 units; protective, 1,500 units.
2. Serum Antitetanicum Siccum. Dried Antitetanic Serum. - (Syn., Ser. Antitetan. Sicc, Dried Tetanus Antitoxin.)
Manufacture: Evaporate either of the preceding liquid serums in a vacuum, over sulphuric acid, or other desiccating agent, or pass over it a current of warm air freed from bacteria, when it has a potency of 1,000 units per Gm. It is in orange-yellowish flakes, small lumps, yellowish-white powder; odorless, soluble in distilled water (9), solution being opalescent and slightly viscous. For use - dissolve serum in recently boiled and cooled distilled water ( - 9), preferably in the original container, under most rigid aseptic conditions and use immediately. Must conform to all requirements of antitetanic serum, and be kept dark, in hermetically sealed amber-colored glass containers, free from air, at 4.5-15° C. (40-59° F.); does not lose in potency as does the liquid serum. Dose, hypodermic, 10,000 units; protective, 1,500 units.
Properties and Uses. - Tetanus (tonic spasm of some or all of the voluntary muscles, when confined to lower jaw, usually part first affected - lockjaw, trismus), an infection as a rule through a wound, when it is well to enlarge incision sufficient to remove any foreign substance, thereby employing good surgery as well as abundant serum; 3iiss (10 Ml. (Cc.)), every 6 hours for several days, unless symptoms improve. May trephine skull and inject into brain direct exv-45 (1-3 Ml. (Cc.)), but action uncertain. Best as a prophylactic, as soon as possible after the infection; sometimes used as a dusting powder locally.
5. Virus Vaccinicum. Vaccine Virus, official. - (Syn., Virus Vaccin., Glycerinated Vaccine Virus, Smallpox Vaccine, Jennerian Vaccine; Fr. Vaccin; Ger. Impfstoff.)
Manufacture: The pustules (pulp, dried scab) of vaccinia or cowpox from vaccinated animals (calves) of the bovine species, wherein the pulp is powdered, rubbed, or ground, sifted or strained to remove coarse particles, and made into a smooth emulsion with a glycerin solution, which has a certain antiseptic action. Gradually loses potency, especially at high temperature, and usually after 3 months is of little value.
Commercial. - The ravages of smallpox in civilized communities, prior to Jenner's discovery, May 14, 1796, often included one-tenth of the entire population. It had been observed that dairymaids who contracted cowpox were immune from smallpox, and, after twenty years of close observation and study of the subject, Jenner on the above date vaccinated a -boy with a cowpox scab taken from the hand of his father's milkmaid, and after a few weeks' intermission inoculated the same boy with smallpox virus without producing, however, the slightest symptoms of that disease, a fact which, upon further verification by him, lead immediately to the establishment of his belief and claim. Owing to blood taints and lurking disease human virus no longer is employed, but only that coming from healthy bovine animals (calves 2-3 years old), those having no communicable malady, or even suspected of it, other than vaccinia; each animal must be under veterinary examination for 7 days prior to vaccination, and as soon as the vaccine pulp is removed a necropsy must be made and permanent records kept. Each lot of virus must be examined to insure freedom from pathogenic micro-organisms, tetanus spores or toxin, the records of the same being preserved on file, and must be marketed in sterile containers bearing upon the label its name and number, also name, address, and license number of the manufacturer under permit of the Secretary of the Treasury, United States, as well as the date beyond which the product is likely to be unreliable. It should be kept dark, at a temperature of 4.5-15° C. (40-59° F.). Some manufacturers use the serum, exuding after removal of the crusts, for preparing the "dry lymph points," but these are regarded generally as unsatisfactory.
6. Hypophysis Sicca. Desiccated Hypophysis,official. - (Syn., Hypophysis Sic, Desiccated Pituitary Body; Ger. Trockene Hypophysis.) The posterior lobe obtained from the pituitary body (gland - at base of brain; anterior lobe larger, dissimilar action) of cattle, cleaned, dried, and powdered. It is a yellowish, grayish, amorphous powder, characteristic odor, partially soluble in water. Dose, gr. 1/2-4 (.03-.2 Gm.).
Preparation. - 1. Liquor Hypophysis. Solution of Hypophysis. (Syn., Liq. Hypophysis, Solution of the Pituitary Body; Ger. Hy-pophysislosung.)
Manufacture: Extract the finely minced material with slightly acidulated water, boil solution 10 minutes, sterilize filtrate and preserve it in a sterile condition in glass containers. It is a transparent aqueous solution, colorless or nearly so, faint characteristic odor; contains the water-soluble principle or principles from the fresh posterior lobe. Dose, ex-30 (.6-2 Ml. (Cc.)).
Properties and Uses. - Cardiac stimulant (slows and strengthens heart action), diuretic, dilating renal vessels, increasing urine.