9. Butyrum, Butter

Butyrum, Butter. This is obtained by churning the cream rising to the surface of cow's milk. It is soft, yellow, neutral (if acid, due to free butyric acid), sp. gr. 0.930, melts at 32° C. (89.6° F.), congeals at 23° C. (73° F.); odor delicate, sweet; taste bland; contains olein 30 p. c, palmitin and stearin 68 p. c, about 2 p. c. glycerides of butyric, capronic, caprylic, and caprinic acids. When employed in medicine, should be freed from salt and casein by melting it in warm water and decanting the clear liquid. If 100 parts be saponified by alkali, and the soap decomposed by hydrochloric acid, get fat acids, which, after washing (to remove 8 p. c. volatile fat acids) and drying, weighs 85-88 parts; other fats yield about 95 p. c. of fat acids insoluble in water. Used as demulcent, lenitive, ointment, dietetic.

10. Extractum Carnis, Extract Of Beef (Meat)

Extractum Carnis, Extract Of Beef (Meat). The residue obtained from fresh beef broth by evaporation at a low temperature - grind lean beef to a pulpy mass, stir with equal quantity of water; strain, evaporate in steam-pans over which a current of air is passed continuously, filter, evaporate to desired consistence; less nutritious than meat, as fat, albumin, much fibrin and gelatin are removed.

11. Oleum Bubulum, Neat's-Foot Oil

Oleum Bubulum, Neat's-Foot Oil. Obtained by boiling in water the fatty tissue of the feet of the ox, deprived of hoofs, skimming oil from the surface, keeping it some time on warm water for impurities to settle; it is yellowish, peculiar odor; used for softening leather, etc.; for cod liver oil, but occasions diarrhoea.

12. Sanguis, Blood

Sanguis, Blood. This, the arterial fluid of the ox, is red, opaque, peculiar odor, sp. gr. 1.050; consists of blood corpuscles in suspension; coagulates on exposure, separating the clot (cruor) from the liquid (serum); contains water 78 p. c, albumin 7 p. c, fibrin .4 p. c, corpuscles, haemoglobin, etc., 13 p. c, salts .9 p. c. - alkalies, calcium and magnesium chlorides, phosphates, sulphates; the serum contains 10 p. c. solids - 8 p. c. of which are albuminoids. When evaporated have extractum or pulvis sanguinis. Used as restorative. Dose, gr. 5-15 (.3-1 Gm.).

13. Os, Bone

Os, Bone. The skeleton of vertebrate animals, official 1850-1880. Bone has a solid, white, smooth, lamellated texture, internally porous, consisting of a cellular gelatinous tissue filled with calcareous deposits (earthy salts). It is insoluble in water, soluble in hydrochloric acid with effervescence, leaving behind a gelatinous mass (ossein); contains calcium phosphate 40-67 p. c, calcium carbonate 5-10 p. c, magnesium phosphate 1-2 p. c, calcium fluoride 1 p. c, traces of Si, Fe, Mn, NaCl. Ossein yields gelatin when boiled with water; when dry distilled get Dippel's animal oil, containing pyridine, picoline, and other bases. Used for preparing animal charcoal (bone-black), phosphates, superphosphates (manure).