1. Fel Bovis. Oxgall.

2. Saccharum Lactis. Sugar of Milk, C12H22O11 + H2O.

Bos taurus,


1. The fresh bile of the ox. 2. Lactose, C12H22O11 + H2O, from the whey of cow's milk.

Habitat. Domesticated; universal.

Syn. 1. Fel Tauri, Fel Bovinum, Bilis Bubula, Ox-bile; Fr. Bile (Fiel) de Boeuf; Ger. Ochsengalle, Rindsgalle. 2. Sacch. Lact., Milk sugar, Lactose; Fr. Sucre de Lait, Lactine; Ger. Milchzucker.

Bos. L. bos, bovis, fr. Gr.

Bos Taurus The Ox And Cow 868

an ox - i. e., its classic name.

Tau'rus. L. fr. Gr.

Bos Taurus The Ox And Cow 869

a bull, ox - i. e., its classic name.

Animal. - Large, 2-3 M. (6-10°) long, 1-1.6 M. (3-5°) high, head low upon a short neck, legs relatively short, hoofs broad, muffle naked, horns unbranched, tail tufted at the tip, inguinal teats.

I. Bile (oxgall): This is separated by the liver in the gall-bladder; it is a brownish-green, somewhat viscid liquid, characteristic odor, disagreeable, bitter taste, sp. gr. 1.020, neutral, faintly alkaline. Tests: 1. Add alcohol - precipitate (mucilaginous matter), filter, evaporate off alcohol, when it resists putrefaction. 2. Mix 2 drops with water 10 Ml. (Cc), + a drop of a fresh solution of sugar 1 and water 4, + sulphuric acid cautiously added until precipitate first formed is redissolved - brownish-red color, changing to carmine, purple, violet. Dose, inspissated bile, gr. 5-15 (.3-1 Gm.).

Constituents. - Water 85-90 p. c, solids 10 p. c: Sodium and potassium glycocholates and taurocholates 6 p. c. (boiled with alkalies glycocholic acid splits into cholic acid and glycocoll, and taurocholic acid into cholic acid and taurin, C2H7NSO3); bile pigments - bilirubin (orange-red), C32H36N4O6, oxidizing quickly into biliverdin (dark green), C32H36N4O9, bilifuscin (dark brown), biliprasin (greenish-black), bilihumin (blackish), bilicyanin (bluish), mucilage (precipitated by 2 vols, alcohol), cholesterin, C26H44O, choline, fat, albumin, soap, mucin, urea, salts.

Preparation. - 1. Extractum Fellis Bovis. Extract of Oxgall. (Syn., Ext. Fel. Bov., Powdered Extract of Oxgall; Fr. Extrait Bile (Fiel) de Boeuf; Ger. Ochsengallextrakt.)

Manufacture: Macerate for 2 days 80 Gm. with alcohol 100 Ml. (Cc), decant liquid, wash residue with alcohol 50 Ml. (Cc), decant liquid, mix and filter the two liquids, reclaim alcohol, evaporate at 75-80° C. (167-176° F.) to thick extract, spread on glass plates, expose to warm air at 70° C. (158° F.), pulverize, add dried starch q. s. 10 Gm.; mix thoroughly, pass through fine sieve; 1 Gm. represents 8 Gm. of oxgall. Should be kept in small, wide-mouthed, tightly-stoppered bottles. Dose, gr. 1-3 (.06-.2 Gm.). '

Unoff. Prep.: Fel Bovis Purificatum, U. S. P. 1900; evaporate oxgall 300 to 100, add alcohol 100, mix thoroughly, after 3-4 days decant, filter, distil off alcohol, evaporate to pilular consistence, dose, gr. 5-15 (.3-1 Gm.).

PROPERTIES and Uses. - Tonic, laxative, cholagogue, antiseptic, vermifuge; constipation, especially when feces pale color, dyspepsia, jaundice; whenever biliary secretion is deficient; locally in glandular enlargements.

II. Lactose (sugar of milk): This is found only in mammal's milk, usually to the extent of about 5 p. c.; obtained mostly in Switzerland, Bavaria, etc., from whey of cheese-making; the butter and casein are removed, the latter by allowing time for oxidation and generation of lactic acid, or by adding to skimmed milk diluted sulphuric acid, evaporating the resulting whey to 1/15 original bulk, when it is a brown, viscid, sweetly saline mass; this is put into large tanks or tubs, and in 1 2 days sugar crystallizes in bright yellow granules - sugar sand - the process being facilitated by the presence of thin sticks or cords; the impure crystals may be dissolved in water, decolorized by charcoal and recrystallized. It is in white, hard, crystalline masses or white powder, producing grittiness on the tongue, odorless, faintly sweet taste, permanent, readily absorbs odors, soluble in water (4.9), boiling water (2.6), insoluble in chloroform, ether, almost so in alcohol; aqueous solution (1 in 20) neutral, dextrorotatory. Tests: 1. Mix hot saturated aqueous solution and sodium hydroxide T. S. each 5 Ml. (Cc), warm gently - liquid yellow, finally brownish-red; add few drops of cupric sulphate T. S. - precipitates (cuprous oxide). 2. Dissolve 3 Gm. in boiling distilled water 10 Ml. (Cc.) - solution odorless, clear, colorless, faintly yellow; incinerate 1 Gm. - ash .1 p. c. Impurities: Heavy metals, cane-sugar (sucrose, glucose - 25-50 p. c), dextrin, starch. Should be kept in tightly-closed containers. Dose, ℥j_5 (30-150 Gm.) + per die, in powder syrup.

Preparations. - 1. Ferri Carbonas Saccharatus, 10 p. c. 2. Pulvis Ipecacuanhoe et Opii, 80 p. c. 3. Trituratio Elaterini, 90 p. c.

Properties and Uses. - Diuretic in cardiac dropsy; as a diet in consumption and other wasting diseases. In pharmacy for triturations, powders, etc., for diluent, as it is much harder than cane-sugar, hence aids in comminuting medicines more finely; it is less sweet than cane-sugar, and not so apt to ferment in the stomach or bowels, hence suitable for infant foods, certain forms of dyspepsia, etc.

Related Products:

1. Gelatinum. Gelatin, official. - (Syn., Gelat.; Fr. Gelatine; Ger. Gelatina alba, Weisser Leim.) The purified product obtained from animal tissues, as skins, ligaments and bones, by treatment with boiling water.

Manufacture: Gelatinous tissues, as skins, tendons, ligaments, bone-cartilage, bones, hoofs, horns, etc., previously cleansed by washing in cold water, or treatment with dilute alkali solution, are placed on a perforated diaphragm in a boiler, and boiled with water until the collagen becomes soluble, and solution stiffens to a jelly on cooling; while hot solution is deprived of fat, extraneous matter and impurities by skimming, straining, etc.; when cold jelly is cut into cakes, which are dried on nettings. It is an amorphous solid, in sheets, flakes, ground, powdered, shredded, colorless, slightly yellowish, slight characteristic odor and taste; unalterable in the air when dry, decomposing when moist or in solution; insoluble in cold water, but swells and softens in it, absorbing 5-10 times its own weight; soluble in hot water, acetic acid, glycerin; insoluble in-alcohol, chloroform, ether, benzene, carbon disulphide, fixed or volatile oils. Tests: 1. Aqueous solution (1 in 5,000), + tannic acid T. S. - at once turbid. 2. Hot aqueous solution (1 in 40) is without putrid odor, not more than slightly acid or opalescent in a stratum of 2 Cm. (4/5) thickness, and on cooling and standing forms a firm transparent or translucent jelly; incinerate .5 Gm. - ash 2 p. c, which dissolved in hot distilled water 25 Ml. (Cc.) + few drops of hydrochloric acid - does not respond to heavy metals. Impurities: Heavy metals, arsenic, sulphur dioxide (that used in capsules containing not more than .15 p. a).

Preparation. - 1. Gelatinum Glycerinatum. Glycerinated Gelatin. (Syn., Gelat. Glycerin., Glycerin Jelly; Fr. Gelee Glycerinee; Ger. Glycerinleim.)

Manufacture: Cover over gelatin 100 Gm. with water, previously boiled and cooled, let stand 1 hour, discard water, drain and heat gelatin with glycerin 100 Gm., on water-bath until dissolved, strain and continue heat until product weighs 200 Gm.; when cold cut into pieces, preserve in well-closed containers.

Properties and Uses. - Haemostatic, aneurism, increases coagulability of the blood, when unable to control by pressure or ligature; acts locally and generally in aiding blood coagulation; may be applied to oozing capillaries in 10 p. c. solution, or internally by hypodermic injection, in 1-2 p. c, mixed with normal salt solution (.9 p. c); care must always be used to avoid veins and to have the solution sterilized, thereby preventing embolus, infection, tetanus, etc.