Bri = 79.92.

(Syn., Brominium; Fr. Brome; Ger. Brom.)

The element bromine (Gr.

Bromum Bromine 882

bad smell, stink - i. e.. its disagreeable odor), official 1840-1910, owing to powerful corrosive irritant properties, is employed seldom in the free state, but in combination with the metals, forming salts that are sedative, it is of great service in medicine. Obtained from sea-water, which contains 1/175 p. c, by evaporating until most of the salts crystallize out, leaving bromides; or from mother-liquor (bittern) of salt-works, which contains bromides (chiefly of magnesium) by heating and passing chlorine into it, condensing the volatilized bromine under water - MgBr2 + Cl2 = MgCl2 +Br2. It is a heavy, brownish-red, mobile liquid, evolving always reddish irritating, suffocating fumes, odor of chlorine, sp. gr. 3.016, boils at 63° C. (145° F.), soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, carbon disulphide, water (90). Poisoning: Burning pain along entire alimentary tract, vomiting, purging, collapse, death, perforation may result; give ammonia water (diluted), demulcents, opium, atropine, strychnine, external heat. Should be kept cool, dark, in glass-stoppered bottles. Liquor Bromi, 8.3 p. c, + potassium bromide 12.5, water q. s. 100.

Acidum Hydrobromicum Dilutum. Diluted Hydrobromic Acid. - (Syn., Acid. Hydrobrom. Dil., Acidum Bromhydricum (dilutum); Fr. Acide hydrobromique dilue; Ger. Verdiinnte Hydrobromsaure, Verdiinnte Bromwasserstoffsaure.) An aqueous solution containing 9.5-10.5 p. c. of HBr.

Manufacture: Pour diluted sulphuric acid into a hot saturated solution of potassium bromide, and after 24 hours (potassium sulphate having crystallized out) distil the liquid in a glass retort - 2KBr + H2SO4 = 2HBr + K2SO4; or pass H2S into bromine and water - 10Br + 2H2S + 4H2O = 10HBr + H2SO4 + S; or dissolve tartaric acid (10) and potassium bromide (8), each in cold distilled water (25), add acid solution to saline, shake, cool 24 hours (ice-water, ice-chest), filter - KBr + H2C4H4O6 = HBr + KHC4H4O6; here is formed acid potassium tartrate which upon standing crystallizes out, leaving a supernatant 15 p. c. solution of hydrobromic acid. It is a colorless, odorless liquid; strongly acid taste and reaction; sp. gr. 1.076. Tests:

1. With silver nitrate T. S. - yellowish-white precipitate, insoluble in diluted nitric acid, slowly soluble in excess of stronger ammonia water, and readily soluble in 10 p. c. solution of sodium thiosulphate.

2. Evaporate 25 Ml. (Cc.) - residue .0025 Gm. Impurities: Heavy metals, arsenic, barium, free bromine, iodine, chloride, sulphuric acid. Should be kept dark, in amber-colored, glass-stoppered bottles. Dose, 3ss-l (2-4 Ml. (Cc.)), in water or flavored syrup.

Pure hydrobromic acid is a colorless gas, having pungent irritating odor, producing, in a damp atmosphere, dense white fumes, sp. gr. 2.797; on distilling the official solution water and weak acid first pass over, and at 126° C. (259° F.) the strongest solution (acid) obtainable remains, 47.8 p. c, which may be distilled unchanged; an acid (solution) of 34 p. c. also is marketed.

Properties. - Sedative, narcotic, small doses stimulant.

Uses. - Very similar to potassium bromide, but does not depress like it. Epilepsy, nervousness, headache, tinnitus aurium, vomiting, whooping-cough, muscular spasms, neuralgia, bronchial coughs, cerebral hyperaemia, insomnia, irritable heart.