1. Jateorhiza Calumba

Jateorhiza Calumba. About the same as the official, possibly having a variety difference in that the basal lobes of leaves are rounded but do not overlap, and male inflorescence is hispid. In the official variety, basal lobes mostly overlap, and male inflorescence is smooth. Our commercial root is collected indiscriminately from both species.

2. Anamir'Ta Coc'Cuius (Panicula'Ta), Cocculus Indicus

Anamir'Ta Coc'Cuius (Panicula'Ta), Cocculus Indicus. E. India, Ceylon. Large woody climber; leaves 10-20 Cm. (4-8') long, cordate; flowers, small dioecious; fruit (in clusters 2-5) reniform, drupe, 8 Mm. (J') long, blackish-brown, wrinkled; seed reniform; contains (seed) - picrotoxin, anamirtin (cocculin, not bitter or poisonous), fat; (pericarp, nearly tasteless) - menispermine, paramenispermine, hypo-picrotoxic acid, resin. Picrotoxin (picrotoxinum), C30H34O13 - official 1880-1900, not a single body, but composed of picrotoxin 54 p. c., and picrotin 46 p. c; obtained by evaporating to syrup a tincture made with hot alcohol, removing fat, boiling residue with water, filtering, which deposits picrotoxin upon cooling. It is in colorless, shining prismatic crystals or powder, odorless, very bitter, soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform; with H2SO4 + NaNO3 + NaOH gives brick-red, fading in few hours. Cerebro-spinal excitant, nervine, antiparasitic, with combined action of belladonna and nux vomica; slows heart and respiration, causes spasms of flexors, death by paralyzing heart; convulsions resemble epileptic paroxysms (circular spasms) - those of strychnine being tonic (tetanic), affecting the extensors; paralysis (laryngeal), epilepsy, chorea, eclampsia, chronic spasms of the limbs, vomiting with giddiness, morphine antidote; externally - parasitic skin diseases, itch, lice, ringworm (avoiding abraded surfaces); powdered berries, mixed with dough, sometimes thrown upon water in order to

Fig. 133.   Anamirta Cocculus (paniculata).

Fig. 133. - Anamirta Cocculus (paniculata).

Calumba Calumba 331

a.

Calumba Calumba 332

b.

Calumba Calumba 333

c.

Fig. 134. - Anamirta Cocculus: a, staminate flower; 6, longitudinal section of fruit, magnified; c, fruit and section, normal size.

catch fish; after eating this, fish whirl around, become stupefied, and lie motionless upon the surface, so that they may readily be picked up; berries also prevent secondary fermentation of alcoholic liquors, adding strength thereto, but dangerous. Poisoning: Symptoms and treatment similar to strychnine. Dose, seeds, gr. 1-3 (.06-.2 Gm.); tincture 10 p. c. (diluted alcohol), ij-15 (.13-1 Ml. (Cc.)); picrotoxin, gr. 1/64-1/32 (.001-002 Gm.); menispermine, gr. 1-2 (.06-13 Gm.); decoction, 2. 5. p. c.; ointment, 2 p. c.