Chondroden'Dron Tomento'Sum, Parei'Ra, Parei'Ra Bra'Va. The dried root, official 1840-1910; Brazil, near Rio Janeiro, Peru. Tall woody climber; stem 1-10 Cm. (2/5-4') thick; bark rough, with elevated prominences; leaves 12.5-30 Cm. (5-12') long, ovate, cordate, petiolate,
Fig. 135. - Pareira (brava): portion of a root and transverse section of the same.
smooth above, finely woolly beneath; flowers dioecious, panicles; fruit purplish-black drupe, 6 in a bunch like grapes. Root subcylin-drical, tortuous, in pieces 10-15 Cm. (4-60') long, 1-6 Cm. (2/5-2') thick, brownish, furrowed, hard, heavy, tough; internally brownish-gray, waxy lustre (fresh), 2 or more inequilaterally concentric circles of porous wood-wedges (12) retracted from intervening medullary rays; odor slight; taste bitter; bluish-black with iodine T. S.; solvents: alcohol (70 p. c), boiling water; contains pelosine (cissampeline - identical with beberine, buxine, paricine), tannin, starch, gum, ash 6-11 p. c. Diuretic, tonic, laxative; cystitis, calculi, gonorrhoea, leucorrhoea, dropsy, rheumatism, jaundice; natively for bites of poisonous serpents (leaves to wound, vinous infusion internally). Dose, 3ss-l (2-4 Gm.); extract, gr. 10-20 (.6-1.3 Gm.); fluidextract (dil. alc.), 3ss-l (2-4 Ml. (Cc.)); infusion and decoction, 5 p. c, ℥ j-2 (30-60 Ml. (Cc.)). 4. Cissam'pelos parei'ra (Gr.
a vine). - W. Indies, C. America. Root and stem 6-25 Mm. (1/4-1') thick, not concentric, wood in 20 porous wedges, separated by narrow medullary rays, bark brownish-gray, suberous; lighter than the official, non-waxy, and the infusion gives no blue color with tincture of iodine.
Menisper'Mum Canaden'Se, Yellow Parilla, Canadian Moonseed. The rhizome and roots, official 1880-1900; N. America (Canada to
Fig. 136. - Menispermum canadense: transverse section of rhizome magnified.
S. Carolina). Perennial climber, 2.5-3.5 M. (8-12°) long; stem round, striate; leaves 10-12.5 Cm. (4-5') broad, peltate, 3-5-lobed, pale beneath, petioles long; flowers small, yellowish; fruit 8 Mm. (1/3') thick, black, resembling grapes. Rhizome 1 M. (3°) long, 6 Mm. (J') thick, yellowish-brown, knotty, wrinkled lengthwise, roots many, fracture tough, woody, inside yellowish, bark thick, wood-rays broad, porous, and longest on lower side, pith distinct; nearly inodorous; taste bitter; contains berberine (yellow), menispine, starch, gum, resin, tannin. Tonic, alterative, diuretic; similar to calumba (owing to its bitterness); scrofulous affections, as a substitute for sarsaparilla. Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.); fluidextract (alcohol 65 p. a), 3ss-l (2-4 Ml. (Cc.)).