Cinnamomum Camphora,

(Linne) Nees et Ebermaier.

The dextrorotatory ketone (concrete volatile oil).

Habitat. China, Japan, Formosa. Tree cultivated in Italy as an ornament, and may yield profitably in California, Florida, etc., wherever frosts are light.

Syn. Camph., Camphor Laurel, Gum Camphor Tree; Fr. Camphre du Japon - droit; Ger. Kampfer, Kampher, Campfer.

Cam'pho-ra. L. fr. Ar. kafur or kapur, chalk, lime - i. e., its resemblance.

Plant. - Handsome evergreen tree, 9-12 M. (30-40°) high, .3-6 M. (1-2°) thick, much branched above, fragrant; bark smooth, green; leaves 7.5-15 Cm. (3-6') long, 2.5-7.5 Cm. (1-3') broad, attenuated toward both ends, entire, smooth, shining, ribbed, bright yellowish-green above, paler and glaucous beneath, thick; flowers, June-July, small, whitish; fruit, Nov.-Dec, purple berry, 6 Mm. (1/4') thick, 1-seeded. Dextrorotatory ketone (camphor), in white, translucent masses, granules of tough consistence, penetrating, characteristic odor, pungent, aromatic taste, soluble in alcohol, chloroform, ether, carbon disulphide, petroleum benzin, oil of turpentine, fixed or volatile oils, slightly in water, sp. gr. 0.990; readily pulverized with a little alcohol, chloroform, ether, and liquefied with equal quantity of hydrated chloral, menthol, phenol, thymol; volatilizes at ordinary temperature, melts at 175° C. (347° F.). Tests: 1. Heat 2 Gm. - sublimes without carbonization, leaving ash about .05 p. c. 2. Solution in petroleum benzin. 1 in 10 - clear (abs. of moisture); alcoholic solution precipitates with water. Impurities: Chlorinated products, moisture. Should be kept cool, in well-closed containers. Dose, gr. 1-5 (.06-.3 Gm.).

Commercial. - Tree, resembling sassafras and linden, is of slow growth but flourishes up to 600 M. (2,000°) elevation in the tropics - Cape of Good Hope, Brazil, Jamaica, Madeira, Mediterranean region, etc. The wood is valuable, being white, fragrant and repellent

Fig. 143.   Cinnamomum Camphora.

Fig. 143. - Cinnamomum Camphora.

to insects, and while all parts contain camphor, along with its strong odor, it is obtained only from the root, trunk, and branches of trees fifty or more years old - by sublimation. In Japan roots and small branches are chipped and put, with some water, in large vessels surmounted by earthen domes lined with rice-straw; on applying heat the camphor, volatilized by steam, rises to the domes and condenses upon the straw - flowers of camphor - from which it is shaken and packed in double-tubs, 100 pounds (45 Kg.). In China the comminuted plant is boiled with water until camphor adheres to the ladle and the strained liquid concretes upon cooling, which then is sublimed with alternating layers of earth. In Formosa (island) a long wooden trough, coated with clay and fixed over a crude furnace, is half-filled with water and, Upon a perforated hoard luted to the top, chips are placed, that in turn are covered with inverted pots; on applying heat steam is produced, which, rising, passes through the perforations and chips, thereby becoming camphor-vapor that condenses in the upper part of the pots - flowers of camphor - from which it is scraped every few days. It is forwarded in leaf-lined baskets, 70 pounds (32 Kg.), to Tamsui, Takow, etc., there stored in vats, or packed in chests, tubs (lead- or tin-lined), KM) pounds (45 Kg.), which, prior to shipping, are saturated with water to prevent loss of weight by evaporation in transit, causing it to reach us somewhat moist. When in vats a yellowish-brown volatile oil - oil of camphor - drains out, the amount increasing with pressure. There are two varieties: 1, Japan (Tub, Dutch - they being the first to introduce it), lighter pink, larger grained, higher priced, cleaner, dryer; usually from Batavia; 2, China (Formosa), cheapest, most abundant; usually from Canton. As such "crude camphor" contains 2-10 p. c. of impurities - vegetable matter, gypsum, salt, sulphur, chips, ammonium chloride, chlorinated products, etc. - which must be removed before suitable for medicine.

Refining. - Formerly done exclusively in Europe, but now largely in our country, by mixing crude camphor with 1/50 part of quicklime (iron filings, sand, or charcoal) to remove resin, empyreumatic oil, moisture, etc., then resubliming at 175-204° C, (347-400° F.) in iron, copper or glass retorts, and pressing into rectangular blocks or circular cakes.

Adulterations. - Rare: Stearic acid 25-50 p. c, insoluble in alcohol except when hot, crystallizing therefrom upon cooling; cane-sugar 20 p. c.

Constituents. - C10H16O. When heated with zinc chloride yields cymol, C10H14; with nitric acid yields camphoric acid, C10H16O4, and camphoronic acid, C9H12O5; the former acid forms colorless, inodorous prisms (see page 231); the latter acid melts at 136° C. (277° F.) with decomposition and is freely soluble in water or alcohol.

Preparations. - 1. Aqua Camphorae. Camphor Water. (Syn., Aq. Camph., Aqua Camphorata, Mistura Camphorae; Fr. Eau camphre; Ger. Kampferwasser.)

Manufacture: 4/5 p. c. Dissolve .8 Gm. in alcohol .8 Ml. (Cc.), triturate with purified talc 1.5 Gm. until alcohol evaporated, add recently boiled distilled water q. s. 100 Ml. (Cc.), filter repeatedly until clear. Dose, 3j-8 (4-30 Ml. (Cc.).

2. Linimentum Camphorae. Camphor Liniment. (Syn., Lin. Camph., Camphorated Oil, Linimentum Camphoratum; Fr. (Liniment) Huile camphre; Ger. Oleum Camphoratum, Kampferol, Kamp-ferliniment.)

Manufacture: 20 p. c. Heat in a flask on water-bath cottonseed oil 80 Gm., add camphor 20 Gm., stopper container and agitate occasionally until dissolved without further heating; used externally.

3. Spiritus Camphorae. Spirit of Camphor. (Syn., Sp. Camph., Tinctura Camphorae, Tincture of Camphor, Alcohol Camphoratus; Fr. (Esprit de) Alcool camphre; Ger. Spiritus camphoratus, Kampfer-spiritus.)

Manufacture: 10 p. c. Dissolve 10 Gm. in alcohol q. s. 100 Ml. (Cc.). Test: 1. To 5 Ml. (Cc.) add .05 Gm. of anhydrous potassium carbonate - latter does not liquefy or adhere to the bottom of container (abs. of added water). Dose, v-60 (.3-4 Ml. (Cc.)).

4. Linimentum Belladonnas, 5 p. c. 5. Linimentum Saponis, 4.5 p. c. 6. Tinctura Opii Camphorata, 2/5 p. c.

Unoff. Preps.: Cerate (camphor liniment (10), white wax (35), white petrolatum (15), benzoinated lard (40)). Linimentum Camphorae Ammoniatum (Br.) 12.5 p. c, + stronger ammonia water 25 p. c. Ointment 22 p. c, + white wax 11, lard 67. Vinum Camphoratum (each 50 p. c.). Camphora Phenolata, Camphora Salicylata, etc. Enters universally into camphor-ice, dentifrices, etc.

Properties. - Antispasmodic, stimulant, carminative, stomachic, (an) aphrodisiac, antipyretic, nervine, sedative, diaphoretic, rubefacient, resolvent, antiseptic. Has great healing powers; dilates vessels, increases flow of gastric juice and peristalsis.

Uses. - Camphor was not known to Greeks or Romans, we having derived it from the Arabians, who use it solely as a refrigerant and to lessen sexual desire. Now employed in hysteria, dysmenorrhoea, nervousness, diarrhoea, colic, flatulence, rheumatism, gout, tenesmus, asthma, cough, coryza, toothache, headache, spasms, chorea, epilepsy, nausea, typhoid condition, mania. Externally as a wash, liniment, or ointment for ulcers, gangrene, scabies, sprains, bruises, rheumatic pains, convulsions.

Poisoning: Have burning pain, vomiting, weak pulse, giddiness, debility, pallor, cold, clammy skin, faintness, confused ideas, delirium, convulsions, death from collapse; does not kill healthy adults. Give water at once if camphor taken in alcoholic solution, induce vomiting, follow with alcohol in small but frequent doses, coffee, cold, arterial sedatives, ether, artificial heat, castor oil; opium and bromides for the convulsions.

Incompatibles: Aconite, acids, neutral salts, water precipitates all solutions.

Synergists: Antispasmodics, alcohol, opium, narcotics, aromatics, all in small quantity.

Allied Products:

1. Camphora Monobromata. Monobromated Camphor, C10H15BrO, official. - (Syn., Bromo-(Brom-) camphor, Bromated (Brominated) Camphor; Fr. Camphre monobrome; Ger. Monobrom-kampfer-(-campfer).)

Manufacture: This ortho-monobromcamphor is obtained by heating together in a flask or retort camphor and bromine in molecular proportions (preferably with a little water or chloroform) until reaction ceases, allowing yellowish solution to crystallize} heating until mass becomes white, recrygtallizing from alcohol or petroleum benzin. It is in colorless prismatic needles, scales, or powder, mild, characteristic, camphoraceous odor and taste, permanent, decomposed by exposure to sun-light, soluble in alcohol (6.5), chloroform (.5), ether (1.6), almost insoluble in water; melts at 75° C. (167° P.). Tests: 1. Heat .1 Gm. + silver nitrate .1 Gm. + nitric acid 2 Ml. (Cc.) + sulphuric acid 2 Ml. (Cc.) until nitrous vapors cease - yellowish precipitate (silver bromide). 2. Shake .5 Gm. with distilled water 10 Ml. (Cc.) - filtrate neutral, + few drops of silver nitrate T. S. - slightly opalescent; incinerate 2 Gm. - ash .05 p. c. Should be kept dark, in well-closed containers. Dose, gr. 1-5 (.06-.3 Gm.), in pill, emulsion.