Capsicum frutesccns,

Linne.

The dried fruits, with not more than 2 p. c. of stems, calyxes, other foreign matter.

Habitat. S. and C. America (Cayenne in Guiana), introduced into E. Indies, Java (by Portuguese), also into Africa; cultivated in United States, also in tropics.

Syn. Capsic, Cayenne Pepper, African Chillies, Spanish, Red, Bird, Garden, Cockspur, Pod, Chilly, Zanzibar, Goat's, Guinea, American Cayenne or African Cayenne Pepper, Chillies; Piper Hispanicum; Br. Capsici Fructus; Fr. Capsique, Piment (rouge) des jardins, Poivre de Cayenne-, Guinee or d'Inde; Ger. Fructus Capsici, Spanischer Pfeffer, Schlotenpfeffer.

Cap'si-cum. L. capsa, a box - i. e., shape of the fruit: or from Gr.

Capsicum Capsicum 703

to bite - i. e., from its hot, pungent properties.

Fru-tes'cens. L. frutex, shrub, bush - i. e., somewhat shrub-like in habit and appearance.

Fig. 345.   Capsicum frutescens.

Fig. 345. - Capsicum frutescens.

Plant. - Small, spreading shrub, .6-1 M. (2-3°) high; stem much branched; leaves alternate, 5-7.5 Cm. (2-3') long, entire, glabrous; flowers 2-3 together in the bifurcations, greenish-yellow, July-Aug.; ovary 2-celled, many ovules. Fruit, oblong-conical, 8-20 Mm. (1/3-4/5') long, 2-15 Mm. (1/12-3/2) thick, brownish-red, orange (pericarp), shining, membranous, translucent; 2-3-locular, united below, containing 6-17 flat, reniform, yellowish seeds attached to placenta, frequently detached; odor characteristic, sternutatory; taste intensely pungent; calyx when present light greenish-brown, inferior, inconspicuous, 5-toothed, usually attached to long straight peduncle. Powder, yellowish-brown; microscopically - mounts with hydrated chloral T. S. (under microscope) show yellowish-red oil globules; stone cells 2 kinds, elongated, uniformly thin-walled (endocarp), irregular, thick-walled (seed-coat); non-volatile extractive, soluble in ether, 15 p. c. Solvents: alcohol; ether; hot water partially. Dose, gr. 1-5 (.06-.3 Gm.).

Adulterations. - Fruit: Fruits of allied species; Powder: Red lead oxide, colored sawdust, bran, etc. - the former recognized by adding diluted nitric acid to dissolve lead and precipitating same with sodium sulphate - the two latter by the microscope; corn meal, starch (iodine test), ash 15-18.4 p. c.

Commercial. - Plant largely cultivated in our country to supply demand. Fruit is plucked, exposed to sun until dried, then packed in suitable shape for market; much imported from India, Africa - Liberia, Zanzibar, Natal, Bombay, Penang, Pegu, Cayenne, etc.

Constituents. - Capsaicin (capsacutin, capsicin) .02 p. c, Capsi-cine, Volatile oil, fixed oil, fat acids (oleic, stearic, palmitic), resin, red coloring matter (cholesterin ester of the fatty acids), ash 7 p. c, of which 1 p. c. is insoluble in hydrochloric acid.

Capsaicin, C18H28NO3. - Considered the chief active constituent - identical with capsacutin, resides mostly in the pericarp and placenta, and is obtained by adding diluted caustic alkali to the petroleum extract, passing CO2 through this alkaline solution, when it crystallizes out in colorless form. It is soluble in alcohol, ether, benzene, fixed oils, and its vapors are intensely acrid and irritating. It has also been obtained as an oleoresin (capsicin, capsicol), amorphous resin-

Fig. 346.   Capsicum fruit: magnified.

Fig. 346. - Capsicum fruit: magnified.

Fig. 347.   Capsicum fruit: cross section, magnified.

Fig. 347. - Capsicum fruit: cross-section, magnified.

Fig. 348.   Capsicum annuum: fresh fruit one half natural size.

Fig. 348. - Capsicum annuum: fresh fruit one-half natural size.

like acid, to which the red coloring matter persistently adheres. Dose, gr. 1/10-1/4 (.006-.016 Gm.).

Capsicine. - This occurs in small quantity; it is a volatile alkaloid, having odor of coniine - devoid of pungency - and is an oily liquid, not existing in the unripe fruit, but results from decomposition processes in ripening.

Volatile Oil. - Obtained by distillation and gives to the fruit its odor.

Preparations. - 1. Oleoresina Capsici. Oleoresin of Capsicum. (Syn., Oleores. Capsic.; Fr. Oleoresine (Extrait ethere) de Capsique; Ger. Spanisch-pfeffer-oelharz.)

Manufacture: Percolate slowly, in a covered glass percolator, 100 Gm. with ether, added in successive portions, until 160 Ml. (Cc.) of percolate obtained, reclaim most of the ether on water-bath, transfer residue to a dish, allow remaining ether to evaporate spontaneously in a warm place, pour off liquid portion, transfer remainder to a glass funnel with pledget of cotton; when separated fatty matter (which is to be rejected) has drained, mix liquid portions; yield 12-15 p. c. Should be kept in well-stoppered bottles. Dose, e1/4-1 (.016-06 Ml. (Cc.)).

Fig. 349.   Solanum Dulcamara.

Fig. 349. - Solanum Dulcamara.

Capsicum Capsicum 709Fig. 350.   Dulcamara (Nat.).

Fig. 350. - Dulcamara (Nat.).

Fig. 351.   Dulcamara: transverse section of a branch magnified 3 diam.

Fig. 351. - Dulcamara: transverse section of a branch magnified 3 diam.

Prep.: 1. Emplastrum Capsici. Capsicum Plaster. (Syn., Emp. Capsic; Fr. Sparadra(pum) Capsici (de Capsique); Ger. Capsicumpflaster.) Manufacture: Apply oleoresin of capsicum to the surface of rubber plaster so as to form a thin, even coating, leaving a margin around the edges; each 15 □ Cm. of spread plaster contains .25 Gm. of oleoresin of capsicum - requiring about 6e.; .4 Ml. (Cc).

2. Tinctura Capsici. Tincture of Capsicum. (Syn., Tr. Capsic, Fr. Teinture de Piment des jardins; Ger. Spanischpfeffertinktur.)

Manufacture: 10 p. c Similar to Tinctura Veratri Viridis, page 101; menstruum: 95 p. c alcohol. Dose, ex-60 (.6-4 Ml. (Cc.)).

Unoff. Preps.: Extract, dose, gr. 1/2-2 (.03-. 13 Gm.). Fluidextract (alcohol), dose, ej-5 (.06-.3 Ml. ((c)). Infusion, 5 p. c., dose, 3ij-4 (8-15 Ml. (Cc.)). Unguentum Capsici (Br.), 20 p. c.

Properties. - Stimulant, stomachic, rubefacient, condiment, diaphoretic; stimulates flow from salivary, gastric, and intestinal glands, also the stomach walls and heart.

Uses. - Indigestion, dyspepsia, atonic gout, alcoholism, delirium tremens, intermittents; flatulent colic, low fevers, cholera, menor-rhagia, seasickness, tonsillitis, scarlet fever, diphtheria, hemorrhoids; externally - lumbago, rheumatism, neuralgia, chilblains, relaxed uvula. Was known to the Romans, and used in E. Indies from time immemorial.

Allied Plants: