1. Elettaria Ma'Jor, Ceylon Cardamom

Elettaria Ma'Jor, Ceylon Cardamom. About 50 Mm. (1 3/5') long, triangular, prolonged into a beak 15 Mm. (§') long, brownish-gray color.

2. Amo'mum Cardamo'mum, A. ve'rum and A. globo'sum, Round Cardamom. - Siam, Java, China, globular-ovate. A. aromat'icum, Bengal Cardamom, 9-winged at apex. A. xanthoi'des, Wild or Bastard Cardamom, A. max'imum, Java Winged Cardamom, 9-12-winged from base to apex, and A. Gra'num-paradi'si, Grain of Paradise. Fruit resembles cardamom seeds, several varieties, used for ginger.

3. Maran'Ta Arnndina'Cea, Arrow-Root

Maran'Ta Arnndina'Cea, Arrow-Root. The fecula of the rhizome, official 1820-1880; W. Indies, Bermudas, Brazil. Plant slender, 1-2 M. (3-0°) high, leaves 7.5-12.5 Cm. (3-5') long, lanceolate, flowers white, rhizome perennial, tuberous, fleshy, scaly, 15-30 Cm. (6 - 12') long. Arrow-root in powder or lumps 4 Mm. (1/6') thick, white, opaque; under microscope consists of oval granules of fine-lined layers, nucleus at broad end. The rhizome when 1-2 years old is dug, washed, deprived of scales, ground under water, kneaded, strained, and the fecula allowed to subside; fresh rhizome yields starch 13-20 p. c; root contains starch 27 p. c, fat .2 p. c. Used as demulcent, nutritive food for infants, convalescents, bowel or urinary troubles; in 5 p. c. solution with water or milk by boiling and flavoring with vanilla, lemon juice, etc.; also used in puddings. The jelly is more tenacious than that of all other starches, except Canna.

Fig. 64.   Maranta starch.

Fig. 64. - Maranta starch.

Flo. 65.   Canna starch.

Flo. 65. - Canna starch.

4. Can'Na Ed'Ulis, Canna (Tous-Les-Mois)

Can'Na Ed'Ulis, Canna (Tous-Les-Mois). The fecula of rhizome, official 1870-1880; Peru, Brazil. Perennial herb 2.5 M. (8°) high; stem green; leaves parallel-veined, bluish-green; flowers few, in pairs, red; yellow, purple, bract; fruit round capsule, 12 Mm. (1/2') thick; rhizome creeping, fleshy, thick joints. Canna starch white powder, satiny; under microscope granules largest of all, potato coming next, 1/12-1/8 Mm. (1/300-1/200') long, flat, ovate, hilum at narrow end, encircled by many unequally distant rings. Grind rhizome under water, knead, strain, allow to subside. Used as demulcent, nutritive food for urinary and bowel affections, infants, invalids in convalescence.