1. Chenopodium Ambrosioi'Des, Herba Botryos Mexicanae, Mexican Tea

Chenopodium Ambrosioi'Des, Herba Botryos Mexicanae, Mexican Tea. The fruit, official 1890-1900; Europe, Asia. This resembles very closely the official plant, the latter being, however, more strongly aromatic, leaves more deeply toothed, the lower ones often nearly pin-

Fig. 103.   Chenopodium ambrosioides var. anthelminticum.

Fig. 103. - Chenopodium ambrosioides var. anthelminticum.

Fig. 104.   Chenopodium ambrosioides.

Fig. 104. - Chenopodium ambrosioides.

natihd, spikes more elongated, usually leafless; fruit of both alike. C. Bo'trys, Jerusalem Oak (Feather Geranium); Europe, Asia. Strongly aromatic; catarrh, asthma. C. Bo'nus Henri'cus, Good King Henry; Europe; taste saline, mucilaginous. C. al'bum, Pig Weed (Lamb's Quarters); taste mucilaginous, saline. C. Vulva'ria, Fetid Goosefoot; Europe; plant has fish-brine odor, due to trimethylamine. 2. Phytolac'ca decan'dra, Poke Weed (Root). - Phytolaccaceae. The dried root, collected in autumn, official 1820-1910; N. America, waste places. Perennial herb, 1.3-2.5 M. (4-8°) high; stem annual, 2.5-5 Cm. (1-2') thick, purplish, hollow; leaves 12.5 Cm. (5') long, ovate, smooth, rich-green, entire; flowers greenish-white, racemes; fruit purplish berry, 8 Mm. (1/3') thick, 10-seeded, juice purplish-red. Root, cylindrical, 3-7 Cm. (1-3') thick, transverse or longitudinal slices, yellowish-brown, wrinkled; internally fibro-vascular tissue and par-

Fig. 105.   Phytolacca decandra: 2, single fruit, showing carpels.

Fig. 105. - Phytolacca decandra: 2, single fruit, showing carpels.

enchyma, the latter much retracted; odor slight, taste sweetish, acrid; solvents: diluted alcohol, boiling water; contains glucoside - active, poisonous, saponin-like - starch, sugar, calcium oxalate (phytolacc-ine, -in, -ic acid). Alterative, laxative, emetic, resolvent, anodyne, paralyzant; rheumatism, skin diseases, syphilis, ulcers, scabies, eczema, tonsillitis, diphtheria. Poisoning: Symptoms and treatment similar to aconite. Dose, alterative, gr.

1-5 (.06-.3 Gm.), emetic, gr. 10-30 (.6-2 Gm.); fluidextract (dil. ale), v-30 (.3-2 Ml. (Cc.)); decoction, 5 p. c, 3iv-8 (15-30 Ml. (Cc.)); tincture,

10 p. c, x-60 (.6-4 Ml. (Cc.)). P. octan'dra, C.

and S. America, and P. acino'sa, N. India, are used similarly. All of these furnish young shoots which in spring may be eaten for asparagus, spinach, etc., imparting no odor to urine, but when old none should be taken except in medicinal doses.

3. ILLIC'Ium Ve'Rum, Star Anise

ILLIC'Ium Ve'Rum, Star Anise. Magnoliaceae. The fruit, official

1880-1900; N. Annam, S. W. China (mountains). Small tree, 3-6 M.

(10-20°) high, branched; leaves evergreen, lanceolate, pointed, entire, pellucid-punctate, 5-15 Cm. (2-6') long; flowers greenish-yellow.

Fig. 106.   Phytolacca root: transverse section, natural size.

Fig. 106. - Phytolacca root: transverse section, natural size.

Fruit (capsule - integuments 78 p. c., seeds 22 p. c.), star-shaped, being composed of 8 stellately arranged boat-shaped carpels, 8 Mm. (1/3') long, woody, wrinkled, brown, dehiscent on upper suture; internally each carpel glossy, reddish-brown, containing 1 flattish, oval, glossy-

Chenopodium Chenopodium 283


Chenopodium Chenopodium 284


Chenopodium Chenopodium 285


Fig. 107. - Illicium verum: a, flower; b, fruit carpels of the flower magnified; c, fruit.

brown seed; odor anise-like (anisatum); taste sweet, aromatic - seeds oily; contains (integuments) - volatile oil 5.3 p. c. (congeals at 1° C; 34° F., and consists chiefly of anethol), resin 10.7 p. c., fixed oil 2.8 p. c., saponin, protocatechuic acid, shikimic acid, mucilage, ash 2 p. c; (seeds) - volatile oil 1.8 p. c., resin 2.6 p. c., fixed oil 20 p. c; solvents: alcohol, hot water partially. Adulteration: Poisonous fruit of the allied species, Illicium religio-sum (anisatum). Carminative, anodyne, stimulant, diuretic; flatulent colic, indigestion, infantile catarrh, bronchitis, rheumatism, earache, flavoring. Dose, gr. 5-30 (.3-2 Gm.); infusion, 5 p. c, ℥j-2 (30-60 Ml. (Cc.)); volatile oil, j-2 (.06-.13 Ml. (Cc.)).

4. I. religio'sum (anisa'tum). - Cultivated around Buddhist temples in China and Japan,

Fig. 108.   Illicium religiosum (anisatum).

Fig. 108. - Illicium religiosum (anisatum).

Fig. 109.   Drimys Winteri.

Fig. 109. - Drimys Winteri.

being called Shikimi. Fruit very similar to the preceding, having 8 carpels, but is more woody and shriveled, with thin, upward-curved beak; odor faint, clove-like; taste unpleasant; contains .44 p. c. of a non-solidifying volatile oil, sp. gr. 0.990, shikimic acid, sikimipicrin

(crystalline, bitter), and sikimin (poisonous). The oil consists of a terpene, safrol, C10H10O2, eugenol, C10H12O2, and liquid anethol. The fruit is used natively for killing rats, fish, etc., the latter serving as food in spite of the poison. Upon persons it causes vomiting, epileptiform convulsions, and dilated pupils; J. florida'num and I. parviflo'rum; Fla., Ga., La.; the former has fruit with 13 carpels, the latter with only 8; barks are substituted sometimes for cascarilla.