The element chlorine (Gr.

Chlorine CLI 35 4 881

light green - i. e., color of the gas) is a greenish-yellow irrespirable gas, and as such is mainly useful as a reagent in the laboratory and for bleaching, deodorizing, or disinfecting. It is not official, but some of its compounds are.

Preparation. - (Unoff.): Liquor Chlori Compositus (Chlorine Water), official 1860-1910. Obtained by adding hydrochloric acid 2 Ml. (Cc), diluted with distilled water 2 Ml. (Cc), to potassium chlorate .7 Gm. in a 200 Ml. (Cc.) flask, placing this in boiling water 2-3 minutes and when filial with greenish-yellow gas removing from hot water and adding through funnel, fitting in stopper of flask and containing purified cotton 1 Gm., cold distilled water, 2 portions, 50 .Ml. (Cc.) each; after each portion stopper flask, invert, agitate - 2KC1O3 + 4HC1 = 2KC1 + 2H2O + 2ClO3 + Cl2. Stimulant, antiseptic, disinfectant, irritant; typhus fever, liver affections, blood poisoning, scarlatina, fetid bronchitis, diphtheria, typhoid diarrhoea, dysentery, smallpox, phthisis; externally (well diluted) - gargle in smallpox, starlet fever, putrid sore throat, wash for ulcers, cancers, bubos abscesses, itching in skin diseases; chronic catarrh - in atomizer: 3ss; 2 Ml. (Cc), hot water ℥j; 30 Ml. (Cc).

Poisoning: When inhaled may have laryngeal irritation, oedema, asphyxia, black eschars, cough, sensation of constriction across chest, difficult deglutition; when swallowed, have burning sensation, possibly perforations of oesophagus and stomach. Inhale ammonia vapor, steam, fresh air, ether, chloroform; emetic, warm water, albumin (white of egg), milk, flour, lime water, stimulants, opium. Incompatibles: Salts of lead and silver. Dose, 3ss-l (2-4 Ml. (Cc)).

Acidum Hydrochloricum. Hydrochloric Acid, HCl. - (Syn., Acid. Hydrochl., Muriatic Acid, Spirit of (Sea) Salt, Marine Acid, Acidum Chlorhydricum, Chlorhydric Acid; Fr. Acide hydrochlorique - chlor-hydrique - muriatique; Ger. Salzsaure, Chlorwasserstoffsaure.) An aqueous solution containing 31-33 p. c of HC1.

Manufacture: Heat sodium chloride with sulphuric acid, wash evolved HC1 gas and pass it into cold water - (1) 2NaCl + H2SO4 = 2HC1 + Na2SO4. (2) NaCl + H2SO4 = HC1 + NaHSO4. The latter equation is used mostly, as less heat is required and the more soluble sulphate formed is easily washed out from the retorts with a stream of water. Much crude acid is produced in the Lablanc soda factories, where sodium chloride and sulphuric acid are heated in cylinders to obtain sodium sulphate (salt-cake), the first step in making sodium carbonate. It is a colorless, fuming liquid; pungent odor; strongly acid taste and reaction, even when highly diluted; fumes and odor disappear on adding water (2); sp. gr. 1.155; heated with manganese dioxide - evolves chlorine. Tests and Impurities: Same as for the diluted acid. Should be kept in glass-stoppered bottles. Dose, eij-5 (.13-.3 Ml. (Cc)), well diluted.

Fuming hydrochloric acid contains 38.2 p. c of HC1, is colorless, fuming strongly in the air, sp. gr. 1.195, used chiefly in chemical processes.

Preparations. - 1. Acidum Hydrochloricum Dilutum. Diluted Hydrochloric Acid. (Syn., Acid. Hydrochl. Oil., Diluted Muriatic Acid; Fr. Acide chlorhydrique dilue; Ger. Verdiinnte Salzsaure.)

Manufacture: Mix hydrochloric acid 100 Gm., distilled water 220 Gm. It is a colorless, odorless liquid, strongly acid taste and reaction; sp. gr. 1.049; contains 9.5-10.5 p. c of HC1. Tests: 1. With silver nitrate T. S. - white, curdy precipitate, insoluble in nitric acid, readily soluble in ammonia water. 2. Evaporate 25 Ml. (Cc.) - residue .003 Gm. Impurities: Heavy metals, arsenic, free bromine, free chlorine, bromide, iodide, sulphates, sulphuric, sulphurous acids. Should be kept in glass-stoppered bottles. Dose, ev-30 (.3-2 Ml. (Cc.)), well diluted. Prep.: 1. Liquor Acidi Arsenosi, 5 p. c.

2. Argenti Nitras Fusus, 4 p. c.

Properties. - Tonic, refrigerant, antiseptic, irritant, poisonous. Given before meals checks flow of gastric juice, diminishing acidity, but 2-3 hours after food increases the acidity; acts as gastric antiseptic, being in the gastric juice .2 p. c, aiding in the conversion of pepsinogen into pepsin, and of proteids into peptones; increases saliva, bile, pancreatic juice, checks fermentation, cleans tongue, allays thirst, combines with albumin or alkaline base of blood, lessening its alkalinity; prolonged use impairs digestion, constipates. The strong applied to the skin produces a blister, destroys tissue, whitens mucous membranes, causing necrosis and sloughing.

Uses. - Low fevers, phthisis, syphilis, phosphatic deposits, acid dyspepsia, gastro-intestinal indigestion without diarrhoea (after meals), chronic gastric catarrh, gastric cancer, to quench thirst, skin diseases (eczema, psoriasis), diphtheria, stomatitis.

Poisoning: Similar to nitric acid. Give alkalies, magnesium oxide, sodium bicarbonate, soap, demulcent drinks, albumin, oil, milk; opium for pain, brandy or whisky for collapse.

Incompatibles: Oxidizable substances (explosive), alkalies, carbonates, salts of Ag, Ca, Pb, glucosides.

Synergists: Digestive ferments, vegetable bitters, gentian, nux-vomica, etc.