Fig. 378. - Calisaya bark, showing digital furrow and short fibrous fracture.

Fig. 379.   Calisaya bark: radial longitudinal section through liber, showing cinchona bast fibres, bast parenchyma, and medullary rays, magnified 60 diam.

Fig. 379. - Calisaya bark: radial longitudinal section through liber, showing cinchona bast-fibres, bast parenchyma, and medullary rays, magnified 60 diam.

night with intermingled fog and sunshine during the day - the other 3 months (Jan., Feb., March) having nights frequently below freezing and days 24° C. (75° F.) with dense fogs; inferior species thrive where moisture is less uniform and average temperature 20° C. (68° F.). Valleys, owing to all locations having to be well-drained, are not so desirable as forest slopes, where trees grow singly or few together at an elevation of 1500-2400 M. (5000-8000°); C. barbacoen'cis - most worthless species, so low as 100 M. (330°), while C. succirubra is valuable at 700 M. (2300°), and others do well at 3500 M. (11500°). Their area is limited to within 11 degrees north and south of Loja (Loxa), outside of which barks are almost worthless, the most southern being

C. austra'lis, the most northern C. tucujen'sis and C. cordifolia. The alkaloids reside largely in the cork and bast-layer of old bark, while that of young bark contains absolutely none; the root-bark of all species is the richest, that of the branches the poorest.

Cultivation. - Cinchona trees, growing natively in mountain forests along with bamboos, begonias, coca, fuchsias, orchids, palms, tree ferns, etc., mostly unprotected and without owners, became, as a rule, common property and a prey to mercenary parties having little regard for future production; with increasing demand and decreasing supply it was only a question of time when the destruction would be complete, a condition that naturally aroused the concern of medical and other scientific men. Although the natives guarded jealously their indigenous inheritance, early endeavoring to prevent its transplanting through foreign visitation and interests, yet it was surmised correctly that the plant would flourish anywhere under approximate climatic conditions. La Con-damine first attempted the experiment with failure in 1737; Dr. Weddell sent seeds to France, 1846-1847, that yielded only ornamental plants, while Hasskarl and Junghuhn (Dutch) were the first, 1853, to obtain practical results from plants they collected and sent to Batavia. Then followed Markham (English), 1859, Ledger, Spruce, Cross, and others, who in various visits to S. America procured seeds, cuttings and scions which were distributed to India, Ceylon, Java, where now three-fourths of the world's bark is grown by cultivation. In fact the native product is so deficient in alkaloids (2-4 p. c.)

Fig. 380.   Cinchona succirubra: transverse section of bark, magnified 30 diam.

Fig. 380. - Cinchona succirubra: transverse section of bark, magnified 30 diam.

Fig. 381.   Cinchona Calisaya (young): natural size.

Fig. 381. - Cinchona Calisaya (young): natural size.

Fig. 382.   Cinchona succirubra: natural quill; d, transverse section.

Fig. 382. - Cinchona succirubra: natural quill; d, transverse section.

that it constitutes only about 5 p. c. (1 p. c. from wild, 4 p. c. from cultivated) of the sum-total annually used, and as all demand is for cultivated tree-bark, its commerce has been revolutionized in quantity, quality, 36 and price. The genus, Cinchona, hybridizes well, so that species and varieties have been formed yielding 5, 10, 15 p. c. of total alkaloids (red - 5-8-11 p. c.)» and those yielding only 3-4 p. c. are in S. India and Java, uprooted by whole plantations and replaced by supposed richer hybrids. Propagation by cuttings is slow, so seeds are planted in nurseries, scions grafted and transplanted into orchards, which are cared for like cultivated fruit trees. C. Calisaya, and C. Ledgeriana (by some considered only a variety of the former) are the species, owing to their richness in quinine, mostly cultivated, the latter largely predominating, while C. succirubra has almost been abandoned. Most of the cultivated bark is grown in Java, considerable in India; formerly a great deal was produced in Ceylon, but a disease fatal to the trees and the substitution of tea-planting have almost eliminated that supply;

Fig. 383.   Mossed C. officinalis (Nat.).

Fig. 383. - Mossed C. officinalis (Nat.).

Fig. 384.   Cinchona bast fibres.

Fig. 384. - Cinchona bast-fibres.

Bolivia and the Straits Settlements furnish some. When trees about 15 years old the bark becomes more or less worthless, consequently they are cut down and replaced. The mountains best adapted for this cultivation are Neilgherry, Himalaya, and Blue.

Collection. 1. Wild S. American Bark. - Formerly this was collected by gangs of cascarilleros, managed for companies by major-domos; each gang left the seacoast in dry weather on donkeys, for the distant mountains, being away several months, and upon arriving in the cinchona districts, encamped near a stream, planted corn and beans, built huts, and depended upon game for meat. Having with a mallet loosened, then removed the lower trunk-bark, the tree was felled and stripped entirely of bark, which was carried to the huts and, in the sun or under shelter, allowed to dry in quills or pieces pressed flat by rocks, and when dried, the best was put in canvas bundles (150 pounds; 70

Kg.) and the return trip begun. At the coast ports these bundles were sewed up in fresh hides, forming, when dry, tight seroons, which were shipped as such, or in bales or boxes, from Guayaquil, Payta, Lima, Carthagena, Santa Marta, Buenos Ayres, etc. Bolivia is the only local country in which the trees are cultivated.