Quinami(n)a, Quinamine, C19H24N2O2. - In long white prisms, non-fluorescent, nearly tasteless, acid solution very bitter, soluble in ether, hot alcohol.
Chinoidinum, Chinoidine, Quinoidine; official 1880-1890. - A blackish amorphous alkaloid, resulting from evaporation of mother-liquor of the preceding alkaloids, and precipitating with sodium hydroxide - purify by dissolving in dilute hydrochloric acid, precipitating by ammonia, washing, drying; it is one-half the strength of quinine. Dose, gr. 2-30 (.13-2 Gm.).
Quinic Acid (Kinic, Chinic or Cinchonic), C7H12O6. - 5-9 p. c.
Quinovic Acid (Kinovic), C32H48O6. - Tasteless shining crystals.
Cincho tannic Acid (Quino-tannic), C14H16O9. - 3-4 p. c.
The alkaloids are combined with one or more of these acids; the first acid (quinic) with sulphuric acid and maganese dioxide yields kinone, C6H4O2; the first and second (quinic and quinovic) produce quinates (kinates) and quinovates (kinovates), as quinate (kinate) of quinine, lime, etc.; the last (cincho-tannic) is a glucoside, being the soluble red coloring matter; when boiled with sulphuric acid gives sugar and cinchona-red.
Quinovin (Kinovin, Chinovin, Quinovic Bitter), C30H48O8. - Bitter glucoside; to alcoholic solution add hydrochloric acid gas, get quinovic (kinovic) acid and quinovin (kinovin) sugar (mannitan).
Cinchona-red, C28H22O14. - This is from cincho-tannic acid, soluble in alcohol and alkaline solutions. Red cinchona bark may contain 10 p. c.
Preparations. - I. Cinchona (C. Ledgeriana, C. Calisaya, +): 1. Fluidextractum Cinchonae. Fluidextract of Cinchona. - (Syn., Fldext. Cinchon., Fluid Extract of Cinchona, Fluidextract of Calisaya Bark; Br. Extractum Cinchonae Liquidum; Fr. Extrait fluide de Quinquina jaune; Ger. Extractum Chinae fluidum, Chinafluidextrakt, Kalisaya-rindenfluidextrakt.)
Manyfacture: Similar to Fuidextractum Ergotae, page 60; 1st menstruum: alcohol 80 Ml. (Cc.), glycerin 10, diluted hydrochloric acid 10; 2nd menstruum: 80 p. c. alcohol; after dissolving soft extract in the reserve, assay, and add enough 2nd menstruum for the 100 Ml. (Cc.) to contain 4-5 - 4.5 Gm. of alkaloids. Dose, exv-60 (1-4 Ml. (Cc.)).
2. Tinctura Cinchona. Tincture of Cinchona. (Syn., Tr. Cinch., Tincture of Yellow Cinchona - Peruvian Bark, Tinctura Cinchonae Flavae; Fr. Teinture de Quinquina (jaune); Ger. Tinctura Chinae, Chinatinktur.)
Manufacture: 20 p. c. Similar to Tinctura Veratri Viridis, page 101; 1st menstruum: glycerin 7.5 Ml. (Cc.), alcohol 67.5 Ml. (Cc.), water 25 Ml. (Cc.), percolate 95 Ml. (Cc.), assay, and add enough 67 p. c alcohol for the 100 Ml. (Cc.) to contain .8-1 - 1 Gm. of total alkaloids. Dose, 5j-2 (4-8 Ml. (Cc.)).
II. Cinchona Rubra (0. succirubra): 1. Tinctura Cinchona? Com-posita. Compound Tincture of Cinchona. (Syn., Tr. Cinch. Co., Huxham's Tincture of Bark; Compound Tincture of Peruvian Bark; Fr. Teinture de Quinquina composee, Elixir febrifuge d'Huxam; Ger. Tinctura China? compositae, Zusammengesetzte Chinatinktur.)
Manufacture: 10 p. c. Similar to Tinctura Veratri Viridis, page 101 ; 1st menstruum: glycerin 7.5 Ml. (Cc.), alcohol 67.5 Ml. (Cc.), water 25 Ml. (Co.),.percolate 95 Ml. (Cc.), assay, and add enough 67 p. c. alcohol for the 1(H) Ml. (Cc.) to contain .4-5 - .45 Gm. of total alkaloids. Dose, 3j (4-8 Ml. (Cc.)).
III. Quinina: 1. Ferri et Quininoe Citras, 11.5-13 p. c.
Unoff. Preps.: Elixir Cinchonoe Alkaloidorum: quinine sulphate .2, cinchonidine sulphate .1, cinchonine sulphate .1, comp. tinct. of cudbear 5, purified talc 2, aromatic elixir q. s. 100. Compound Elixirs - many, dose, each 3j-3 (4-12 Ml. (Cc.)). Extract (75 p. c. alcohol), dose, gr. 5-15 (.3-1 Gm. Decoction, Infusion, each 6 p. c, + aromatic sulphuric acid 1 p. c, dose, ℥ss-2 (15-60 Ml. (Cc.)). Fluidextract (aqueous), red cinchona 100, hydrochloric acid 3, glycerin 12.5, water 500, + water q. s. Oleatum Quininoe, 25 p. c; used externally. Pilulas Antiperiodicoe, quinine sulphate 1 2/5 gr. (.08 Gm.), + . Pilules Antliperiodioe sine Aloe. Pilula Quininoe Sulphates (Br.), 82 p. c. Syrupus Quinidinoe, 3.3 p. c. Tinctura Quininoe (Br.), 2 p. c. Tinctura Quininoe Ammoniata (Br.), 2 p. c. Tinctura Antiperiodica (Warburg's): rhubarb 8 Gm., angelica fruit 8, inula 4, fennel 4, saffron 4, gentian 2, zedoary 2, cubeb 2, myrrh 2, camphor 2, agaric 2, pepper 35, Saigon cinnamon .75, ginger .75, quinine bisulphate 20, extract of aloes 17.5, alcohol 00 p. c. q. s. 1000, dose, 3j (4-15 Ml. (Cc.)). Tinctura Antiperiodica sine Aloe. Vinum Quininoe, .225 p. c, dose, ℥ss-1 (15-30 Ml. (Cc.)).- Quininoe Glycerophosphas. Q. Hypophosphis. Q.Valeras.
Properties. - Tonic, antiperiodic, febrifuge, astringent, stomachic, antiseptic, prevents fermentation and putrefaction. The S. American Indians still consider it poisonous, and always use milder remedies for fevers, while the Ecuador cascarilleros believe their red bark is used only for dyeing. It is thought the Jesuits first discovered its medicinal properties, and not the natives, hence the name Jesuits' powder, as they sold it for its weight in silver, grain for grain. Sir Robert Talbot cured Charles II. of tertian fever with it, 1679, and then sold the secret to Louis XIV., of France, who published it in 1681. The bark is astringent, the alkaloids are not; small doses increase appetite, saliva, gastric juice, peristalsis, heart action, cerebral functions, excretion of waste products; moderate doses diminish amount of urea, uric and phosphoric acids, interfere with oxygen-carrying function of red and prevent migration of white corpuscles, lessen fever by destroying or rendering inert the infective agent causing it, and by diminishing metabolism in the tissue; large doses depress heart, produce gastric irritation, eructation, chill and fever paroxysms, headache, dizziness, perspiration; also quinine, if taken when not indicated, may produce fever, a sense of constriction about the head, ringing in the ears, vertigo, staggering, deafness, headache, delirium - cinchonism. Inasmuch as this will produce that which it cures, Hahnemann, it is said, was influenced by this fact, along with some others, to revive and reestablish homeopathy as based upon similia similibus curantur. Quinidine and cinchonidine are similar to quinine, but cinchonidine produces less marked head symptoms. Cinchonine is the weakest alkaloid, but causes much headache and muscular weakness.
Uses. - Atonic dyspepsia, convalescence, gastric catarrh, asthma, bronchitis, amenorrhoea, enlarged spleen.
Quinine as a specific in malaria, acting as a direct poison to the Plasmodium malarioe, which, infesting the blood, cause the disease. In intermittents give gr. 10 (.6 Gm.) of sulphate in sweating stage, and same quantity 5 hours before the next paroxysm; in the intervals' of paroxysms give arsenic. In remittents give gr. 20-30 (1.3-2 Gm.) at a dose, once or twice daily, until temperature reduced. In typhus and typhoid fevers, variola, pneumonia, pyaemia, septicaemia, neuralgia, scarlet fever, erysipelas, measles, skin affections, whooping-cough, hay fever, to stimulate uterine contraction in labor.
Cinchona bark itself it not much used now, because of its excessive bulkiness, and owing to its alkaloids presenting in such a concentrated form the medicinal properties without astringency.
Fig. 392. - Cinchona scrobiculata bark.
Fig. 393. - Cinchona pubescens bark.
Administration. - The hydrochloride, owing to its greater solubility, is the best salt of quinine for general use, the hydrobromide ranking next; the tannate and sulphate are the most insoluble and possess lower alkaloidal strength, but the latter, in spite of this, is employed mostly. The pill, capsule, or tablet disguises best the taste, but solutions are more effective, and their taste may be modified by licorice, chocolate, glycyrrhizin, yerba santa syrup or fluidextract, etc., in which condition the alkaloid should never be dissolved with acids, but simply suspended by mucilage.
Poisoning: Give potassium bromide and hydrobromic acid, and if associated with quinine will act as preventive; may need cardiac and respiratory stimulants. Morphine counteracts its cerebral action, atropine its nervous, cardiac, and antipyretic effects.
Incompatible: Agents promoting waste: salts of mercury, copper, zinc, lead; tannin with decoction or infusion; alkalies - alkaline carbonates, alkaline earths, and iodine preparations with the alkaloidal solutions, the latter forming insoluble compounds, and all the rest precipitating them.