Maracaibo Or Hard Yellow Bark (C Cordifo'Lia). This constitutes nearly all of the wild-grown bark; contains 2.5 p. c. of alkalo'ds. 2. Pitaya Bark (C. pitayen'sis). - Smooth, with circular scars, liber reddish cinnamon-brown, splintery, powder brownish-yellow. 3. Cusco Bark (C. pubes'cens). - Pale brownish-yellow to whitish, warty periderm, liber cinnamon-color, fracture coarse-splintery; contains cuscovatine, cusconadine, cuscamine. 4. Carthagena Bark (C. lanci-fo'lia and C. cordifolia. - Like the Cusco, only liber is reddish, fracture fibrous. 5. Lima or Huanuco Bark (C. peruvia'na, C. nit'ida, C. micran'tha). - In quills and half-quills. 6. Huamalies or Gray Bark (C. micran'tha, C. purpu'rea, C. glandulif era). - In ash-gray quills and half-quills. 7. Jean or False Loxa Bark (C. Humboldtia'na). - A very inferior variety.
Spurious Cinchona Barks:
1. Cuprea or Copper-colored Bark (Remij'ia Purdiea'na, R. pedun-cula'ta). - Colombia, Andes; contains alkaloids 3 p. c. - quinine 2 p. c, the rest being quinidine, cinchonine, quinovin. The quinine exists as homoquinine and cupreine, C19H22N2O2; this latter is red-brown with ferric chloride, and converted into quinine by methyl chloride.
2. Barks belonging to other genera as Cascaril'la, Ladenber'gia, Nau'clea, Exostem'ma, etc. All distinguished by Grahe's test: The powdered bark heated in a dry test-tube yields a tarry distillate of red color; this test applies to cuprea bark, but with these genera have no reaction. Some of these barks resemble cinchona, others do not.
Mitchel'La Re'Pens, Partridge-Berry, Squaw-Vine. N. America. Creeping evergreen of-the woods; leaves 12 Mm. (1/2') long, ovate; flowers purplish, fruit a scarlet-red berry; contains saponin-like substance, resin, wax, gum, sugar. Tonic, astringent, diuretic; resembles chimaphila and viburnum, they all being sometimes prescribed together. Dose, 3ss-l (2-4 Gm.).